Vegetarians have lower body fat levels than meat-eaters. Study by Nico S. Rizzo, PhD, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, DrPH, Joan Sabate, MD, DrPH and Gary E. Fraser, PhD “Nutrient Proﬁles of Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Dietary Patterns” as published online in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics on August 28, 2013.
Vegetarians lose more weight and keep it off much longer than meat-eaters. The award winning study by Turner-McGrievy B, et al “How do plant-based achieve weight loss? Results of the New Dietary Interventions to Enhance the Treatment for Weight Loss (New DIETs) study” as presented on November 15 at a special session of The Obesity Society (TOS) Annual Meeting during Obesity Week, 2013; Abstract T-53-OR.
High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with increased risk for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, progesterone-receptor-positive breast cancer and increased risk for HER2-negative breast cancer. Of the 7,860 women studied, those with the highest saturated fat intake had a significantly increased risk of all three breast cancer types. Study by Siera S, et al “Consuming a high-fat diet is associated with increased risk of certain types of breast cancer” as part of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) research, as published online on April 9, 2014 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
People who eat the most animal protein are more likely to be diagnosed with type II diabetes. Study by researchers, as led by Monique van Nielen of Wageningen University in the Netherlands, compared 11,000 type II diabetics and 15,000 non-diabetics taking in exact data on diet, exercise and size measurements, covering eight European countries, and spanning 12 years. The paper was published in the April 14, 2014 online issue of the journal Diabetes Care.
Hypertension cured through a plant-based diet and fasting. The study was published in the scientific, peer-reviewed and indexed, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 24, Number 5, June 2001. The paper, entitled Medically Supervised Water-only Fasting in the Treatment of Hypertension detailed our outstanding results in the treatment of 174 consecutive program participants presenting with high blood pressure. Almost 90% achieved blood pressure less than 140/90 (cured). This study demonstrated the remarkable effectiveness of water-only fasting in the treatment of the leading contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. A second study evaluating the effectiveness of fasting in the treatment of borderline high blood pressure was accepted for publication and appeared in the October 2002 issue of the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
A plant-based diet delivers the most successful heart disease study in history. A 100% hit rate curing heart disease, reversing artery damage and prolonging healthy life for decades, just through a plant-based, wholefood diet. Esselstyn CB, Ellis SG, Medendorp SV, et al. “A strategy to arrest and reverse coronary artery disease: a 5-year longitudinal study of a single physician’s practice.” J. Family Practice 41 (1995): 560-568.
Esselstyn CJ. “Introduction: more than coronary artery disease.” Am. J. Cardiol. 82 (1998): 5T-9T.
A plant-based diet wipes out heart disease; stay on drugs and typical diet – get much sicker. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?” Lancet 336 (1990): 129-133.
Heart attacks prevented by vegetarian diet. Study published in the December 3, 2012 issue of the journal Circulation. As reported by The Huffington Post on December 3, 2012 and by MyHealthNewsDaily on December 4, 2012.
Vegetarian diet cuts heart risk by 32%. Study by scientists at England’s University as published on January 31, 2013 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The study was funded by Cancer Research UK and the U.K.’s Medical Research Council and conducted by the university’s Cancer Epidemiology Unit, and reported by Bloomberg.com on January 31, 2013.
Dropping meat from your diet can decrease cholesterol levels by 10%-15%. A huge INTERHEART meta-analysis of 27 studies published in 2009 in the American Journal of Cardiology showed at least 90% of heart disease is lifestyle related. Morrison LM. “Diet in coronary atherosclerosis.” JAMA 173 (1960): 884-888.
Lyon TP, Yankley A, Gofman JW, et al. “lipoproteins and diet in coronary heart disease.” California Med. 84 (1956): 325-328.
Morrison LM. “Arteriosclerosis.” JAMA 145 (1951): 1232-1236.
Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990;336(8708):129-133.
D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2008;117(6):743-753.
Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, et al. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):233-240.
Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(16):1117-1124.
Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Key TJ. Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and non-vegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):597-603. Available at ajcn.nutrition.org/content/97/3/597.long
Gardner CD, Coulston A, Chatterjee L, et al. The effect of a plant-based diet on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(9):725-733.
Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(5):645-654.
Valachovičová M, Krajčovičová-Kudláčková M, Blažíček P, Babinská K. No evidence of insulin resistance in normal weight vegetarians. A case control study. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45(1):52-54.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010;121(21):2271-2283.
Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Cohen J, et al. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(10):1636-1645.
Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(8):1777-1783.
Kahleova H, Matoulek M, Malinska H, et al. Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011;28(5):549-559.
Barnard ND, Gloede L, Cohen J, et al. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(2):263-272.
Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, et al. Red meat consumption and mortality: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(7):555-563.
Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, et al. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(6):562-571.
Bhupathiraju SN, Wedick NM, Pan A, et al. Quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake and risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(6):1514-1523.
Rankin P, Morton DP, Diehl H, et al. Effectiveness of a volunteer-delivered lifestyle modification program for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109(1):82-86.
Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(13):1230-1238.
Additional Plant-Based Diets Prevent Disease References:
Boeing, H., et al., “Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study”. Cancer Causes Control, 2006. 17(7): p. 957-69.PubMed
Miller, A.B., et al., “Fruits and vegetables and lung cancer: Findings from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition”. Int J Cancer, 2004. 108(2): p. 269-276.PubMed
Gonzalez, C.A., et al., “Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of stomach and oesophagus adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)”. Int J Cancer, 2006. 118(10): p. 2559-66.PubMed
Van Gils, C., et al., “Consumption of vegetables and fruits and risk of breast cancer”. JAMA, 2005. 293: p. 183-93.PubMed
Schulz, M., et al., “Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition”. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2005. 14(11 Pt 1): p. 2531-5.PubMed
IARC, Fruits and Vegetables. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, ed. H. Vainio and F. Bianchini. Vol. 8. 2003, Lyon: IARC.
Van’t Veer, P., et al., “Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease”. Pub Health Nutr, 2000. 3: p. 103-107.PubMed
Benetou, V., et al., “Vegetables and fruits in relation to cancer risk: evidence from the Greek EPIC cohort study”. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2008. 17(2): p. 387-92.PubMed
Freedman, N.D., et al., “Fruit and vegetable intake and head and neck cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study”. Int J Cancer, 2008. 122(10): p. 2330-6.PubMed
Smith-Warner, S., et al., “Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies”. Int J Cancer, 2003. 107: p. 1001-11.PubMed
Albanes, D., et al., “Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study”. Am J Clin Nutr, 1995. 62: p. 1427S-1430S.PubMed
Sanjoaquin, M., et al., “Folate intake and colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analytical approach”. Int J Cancer, 2004.
Ohigashi, H., A. Murakami, and Cancer prevention with food factors: Alone and in combination. Biofactors, 2004. 22: p. 49-55.PubMed
IARC, World Cancer Report, ed. B. Stewart and P. Kleihues. 2003, Lyon IARCPress.
Garavello, W., et al., “Diet diversity and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer”. Eur J Nutr, 2008.PubMed
Hercberg, S., S. Czernichow, and P. Galan, “Antioxidant vitamins and minerals in prevention of cancers: lessons from the SU.VI.MAX study”. Br J Nutr, 2006. 96 Suppl 1: p. S28-30.PubMed
Cancer, Volume 112, Issue 10, Pages 2241-2248, 15 May 2008 “Dietary flavonoid intake and lung cancer – a population-based case-control study” Authors: Y. Cui, H. Morgenstern, S. Greenland, D.P. Tashkin, J.T. Mao, L. Cai, W. Cozen, T.M. Mack, Q.Y. Lu, Z.F. Zhang. UCLA’s Jonsson Cancer Center.
American Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 103, Pages 1-10, doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.01838.x, Jun-2008, “Dietary Antioxidants, Fruits, and Vegetables and the Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus” Authors: A. Kubo, T.R. Levin, G. Block, G.J. Rumore, C.P. Quesenberry, Jr, P. Buffler, D.A. Corley.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 1 June 2008, Volume 17, Pages 1344-1353, doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0747, “Dietary Flavonoids and Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial” Authors: G. Bobe, L.B. Sansbury, P.S. Albert, A.J. Cross, L. Kahle, J. Ashby, M.L. Slattery, B. Caan, E. Paskett, F. Iber, J.W. Kikendall, P. Lance, C. Daston, J.R. Marshall, A. Schatzkin, E. Lanza.
Diabetes Care, June 2008, “Intake of Fruit, Vegetables, and Fruit Juices and Risk of Diabetes in Women” Authors: L.A. Bazzano, T.Y. Li, K.J. Joshipura, F.B. Hu. Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine in New Orleans.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, June 2008, “Dried plum polyphenols attenuate the detrimental effects of TNF-alpha on osteoblast function coincident with up-regulation of Runx2, Osterix and IGF-I”. Authors: S.Y. Bu, T.S. Hunt, B.J. Smith. Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences.
Study by Oskarsson V, et al “Vegetables, fruit, and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis: a population-based prospective cohort study” as published in Gut2012; DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302521, showing patients consuming the highest number of vegetable servings had a significantly lower risk of developing non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.
Study by Professor Aedin Cassidy and colleagues from the University of East Anglia (UEA), funded by Diabetes UK, as published in the journal Diabetes Care, 2012.
Around 50% of Kiwi men and 30% of women are not eating enough fruit and vegetables, say results from the Health Ministry’s 2011 adult nutrition survey, as reported by the Sunday Star-Times on 20/11/2011.
Study by Dr. Clinton Wright at the University of Miami and his colleagues as published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, online November 9, 2011. Each point higher that a person scored on the nine-point Mediterranean diet scale reduced the risk of vascular death by 9%.
Study by Kim S, et al “Fruit and vegetable consumption among high school students – United States, 2010” MMWR2011; 60: 1583-1586 as published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, November 25, 2011. They found 5% of US students ate very little fruit and vegetables and only 11.2% ate vegetables at least four times daily.
Study conducted by researchers from three Korean universities found “antioxidants in the major fresh fruits consumed in the United States and Korea protected neuronal cells from oxidative stress” as published in the Journal of Food Science January 2009.
Pimentel, D. et al, “Environmental and Economic Costs of Pesticide Use” Bioscience Vol 42, No.10, November 1992.
Mary Deinlein, “When it Comes to Pesticides, Birds are Sitting Ducks” Smithsonian National Zoological Park. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Conservat…
Williams, T., Silent Scourge, pp 28-35, Audubon, Jan-Feb 1997.
Michael L. McKinney & Julie L. Lockwood, “Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction” Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 14, Issue 11, 1 November 1999, Pages 450-453.
Further Plant-Based Diets Prevent Disease References:
Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, et al. Red meat consumption and mortality: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. Arch Intern Med2012;357:555-63. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.2287 pmid:22412075.
Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, et al. Meat consumption and mortality–results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC Med2013;357:63. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-63 pmid:23497300.
Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med2009;357:562-71. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.6 pmid:19307518.
Larsson SC, Orsini N. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol2014;357:282-9. doi:10.1093/aje/kwt261 pmid:24148709.
Wang X, Lin X, Ouyang YY, et al. Red and processed meat consumption and mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Public Health Nutr2016;357:893-905. doi:10.1017/S1368980015002062 pmid:26143683.
Abete I, Romaguera D, Vieira AR, Lopez de Munain A, Norat T. Association between total, processed, red and white meat consumption and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Br J Nutr2014;357:762-75. doi:10.1017/S000711451400124X pmid:24932617.
S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2015. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.
Daniel CR, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, Hollenbeck AR, Park Y, Sinha R. Prospective investigation of poultry and fish intake in relation to cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res (Phila)2011;357:1903-11. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0241 pmid:21803982.
Micha R, Michas G, Lajous M, Mozaffarian D. Processing of meats and cardiovascular risk: time to focus on preservatives. BMC Med2013;357:136. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-136 pmid:23701737.
Fang X, An P, Wang H, et al. Dietary intake of heme iron and risk of cardiovascular disease: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis2015;357:24-35. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.09.002 pmid:25439662.
Sinha R, Cross A, Curtin J, et al. Development of a food frequency questionnaire module and databases for compounds in cooked and processed meats. Mol Nutr Food Res2005;357:648-55. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200500018 pmid:15986387.
Tang Y, Jiang H, Bryan NS. Nitrite and nitrate: cardiovascular risk-benefit and metabolic effect. Curr Opin Lipidol2011;357:11-5. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e328341942c pmid:21102328.
Habermeyer M, Roth A, Guth S, et al. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health. Mol Nutr Food Res2015;357:106-28. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400286 pmid:25164923.
Inoue-Choi M, Jones RR, Anderson KE, et al. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa. Int J Cancer2015;357:173-82. doi:10.1002/ijc.29365 pmid:25430487.
Jones RR, Weyer PJ, DellaValle CT, et al. Nitrate from Drinking Water and Diet and Bladder Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women in Iowa. Environ Health Perspect2016;357:1751-8. doi:10.1289/EHP191 pmid:27258851.
Ward MH, deKok TM, Levallois P, et al. International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health–recent findings and research needs. Environ Health Perspect2005;357:1607-14. doi:10.1289/ehp.8043 pmid:16263519.
Schatzkin A, Subar AF, Thompson FE, et al. Design and serendipity in establishing a large cohort with wide dietary intake distributions : the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol2001;357:1119-25. doi:10.1093/aje/154.12.1119 pmid:11744517.
Cross AJ, Harnly JM, Ferrucci LM, Risch A, Mayne ST, Sinha R. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Food Nutr Sci2012;357:905-13. doi:10.4236/fns.2012.37120 pmid:23459329.
Inoue-Choi M, Virk-Baker MK, Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, et al. Development and calibration of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Public Health Nutr2016;357:1934-43. doi:10.1017/S1368980015003407 pmid:26626817.
Lin DY, Fleming TR, De Gruttola V. Estimating the proportion of treatment effect explained by a surrogate marker. Stat Med1997;357:1515-27. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19970715)16:13<1515::AID-SIM572>3.0.CO;2-1 pmid:9249922.
Guenther PM, Kirkpatrick SI, Reedy J, et al. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 is a valid and reliable measure of diet quality according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. J Nutr2014;357:399-407. doi:10.3945/jn.113.183079 pmid:24453128.
Daniel CR, Cross AJ, Koebnick C, Sinha R. Trends in meat consumption in the USA. Public Health Nutr2011;357:575-83. doi:10.1017/S1368980010002077 pmid:21070685.
Singh PN, Sabaté J, Fraser GE. Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?Am J Clin Nutr2003;357(Suppl):526S-32S.pmid:12936945.
Lee JE, McLerran DF, Rolland B, et al. Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr2013;357:1032-41. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.062638 pmid:23902788.
Nagao M, Iso H, Yamagishi K, Date C, Tamakoshi A. Meat consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr2012;357:687-93. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.6 pmid:22333876.
Rohrmann S, Linseisen J. Processed meat: the real villain?Proc Nutr Soc2016;357:233-41. doi:10.1017/S0029665115004255 pmid:26621069.
Micha R, Michas G, Mozaffarian D. Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes–an updated review of the evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep2012;357:515-24. doi:10.1007/s11883-012-0282-8 pmid:23001745.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation2010;357:2271-83. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977 pmid:20479151.
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Zhao Z, Li S, Liu G, et al. Body iron stores and heme-iron intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One2012;357:e41641. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041641 pmid:22848554.
Yang W, Li B, Dong X, et al. Is heme iron intake associated with risk of coronary heart disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr2014;357:395-400. doi:10.1007/s00394-013-0535-5 pmid:23708150.
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Bingham SA, Hughes R, Cross AJ. Effect of white versus red meat on endogenous N-nitrosation in the human colon and further evidence of a dose response. J Nutr2002;357(Suppl):3522S-5S.pmid:12421881.
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The Adventist Health Study is a cohort investigation that has been tracking since 1974. Researchers at the Center for Health Research, headquarters for the Adventist Health Study, and every scientist, researcher, doctor and professor has agreed that the lifestyle these people follow is amongst the healthiest in the world and it gives the Adventists strong protection against all the deadly diseases that are crippling the modern world while delivering ten times more centenarians than the US average.
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Roy Morgan Research polled 6142 New Zealanders and 8985 Australians aged 14+ between July and December 2013. Press release, 27 Febraury 2014.
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Study on men enrolled in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, as presented on 19 October 2012 at the annual Cancer Prevention Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, Anaheim, California.
Study by Raul Zamora-Ros, researcher, and colleagues, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Spain. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2012.
Scientists from New Zealand’s Plant & Food Research. Anaerobe, 2013.
Zamora Ros, R., Rabassa, M., Cherubini, A., Urpí Sardà, M., Bandinelli, S., Ferrucci, L., Andrés Lacueva, C., ‘High concentrations of a urinary biomarker of polyphenol intake are associated with decreased mortality in older adults.’ US National Insitute on Aging, Journal of Nutrition, June 2013. PMID: 23803472. Also see, study by Dr Ki Won Lee, Dr Ann M. Bode and Dr Zigang Dong at the world-renowned medical research centre, The Hormel Institute, in Austin, Minnesota. Nature Reviews Cancer, February 2011.
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of the US CDC, in Atlanta. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2010. Also, study by Hung H.C., Joshipura, K.J., Jiang, R., ‘Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease.’ Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2004, 96:1577–1584.
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Study by University of Sydney researchers. Diabetes Care, August 2007. Also see, study by R. Villegas, X.O. Shu, Y.T. Gao, G. Yang, T. Elasy, H. Li, W. Zheng, ‘Vegetable but not fruit consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese women.’ Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 138, pp. 574–580.
An epidemiological project of 71,346 female nurses as conducted at the School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans. Diabetes Care. Also see, study by Mandel, E., et al., ‘Plasma bicarbonate and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.’ Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2012.
From the meta-analysis by scientists from France’s INSERM in Paris, Lille’s Pasteur Institute, and Rouen’s Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 136, pp. 2588–2593.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2001, 20:71–80.
Study by N.T. Akbaraly, H. Faure, V. Gourlet, A. Favier, C. Berr, ‘Plasma Carotenoid Levels and Cognitive Performance in an Elderly Population: Results of an EVA Study.’ Journal of Gerontology: Medical Science, Vol. 62A, No. 3, pp. 308–316.
Study by L. Tang, G.R. Zirpoli, K. Guru, K.B. Moysich, Y. Zhang, C.B. Ambrosone, S.E. McCann, ‘Consumption of Raw Cruciferous Vegetables is Inversely Associated with Bladder Cancer Risk.’ Cancer
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P.N. Mitrou, V. Kipnis, A.C.M. Thiebaut, J. Reedy, A.F. Subar, E. Wirfalt, A. Flood, T. Mouw, A.R. Hollenbeck, M.F. Leitzmann, A. Schatzkin, ‘Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Prediction of All-Cause Mortality in a US Population — Results From the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.’ Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 167, No. 22, pp. 2461–2468.
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Study by Dr Frank B. Hu, of the departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, on 833,234 people. BMJ, 2014, 349:g4490, 29 July 2014.
Study on over 86,000 women, followed for 26 years. American Journal of Epidemiology, September 2011.
B.N. Fink, S.E. Steck, M.S. Wolff, J.A. Britton, G.C. Kabat, M.M. Gaudet, P.E. Abrahamson, P. Bell, J.C. Schroeder, S.L. Teitelbaum, A.I. Neugut, and M.D. Gammon, ‘Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Breast Cancer Survival among Women on Long Island.’ University of North Carolina, University of Toledo, University of South Carolina, Mt Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, National Cancer Institute. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, November 2007, Vol. 16, No. 11, pp. 2285–2292.
A. Kubo, T. R. Levin, G. Block, G.J. Rumore, C.P. Quesenberry Jr, P. Buffler, D.A. Corley, ‘Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus.’ International Journal of Cancer, 20 October 2006.
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Gerd Bobe, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Demetrius Albanes, Tero Hirvonen, Jason Ashby, Phil R. Taylor, Jarmo Virtamo, and Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, ‘Flavonoid Intake and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Male Smokers.’ Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, March 2008, Vol. 17, pp. 553–62.
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Taken from the French cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. American Journal of Epidemiology.
Nancy R. Cook, ScD; Christine M. Albert, MD; J. Michael Gaziano, MD; Elaine Zaharris, BA; Jean MacFadyen, BA; Eleanor Danielson, MIA; Julie E. Buring, ScD; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH, ‘A Randomized Factorial Trial of Vitamins C and E and Beta Carotene in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women — Results From the Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study.’ Annals of Internal Medicine, 2007, 167:1610–1618.
Study released jointly by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research. NZ Herald, NZPA and Reuters, 1 November 2007.
Study by Nick Townsend and colleagues, from WHO and OECD. European Heart Journal, released August 2014.
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Study by Li, Y., Zhang, T., Kauraka, H., Liu, S., Lee, H.F., Newman, B., Yu, Y., Clouthier, S.G., Schwartz, S.J., Wicha, M.S., Arbor, Ann, and Sun, D., ‘Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells.’ Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and University of Michigan,
Study by Duxin Sun, PhD, Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the U-M College of Pharmacy and a researcher with the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center, Clinical Cancer Research, 2010.
Fimognari, C., Hrelia, P., ‘Sulforaphane as a promising molecule for fighting cancer.’ Mutation Research, 2007, 635(2-3):90–104. Also see, Fahey, J.W., Talalay, P., ‘Antioxidant Functions of Sulforaphane: a Potent Inducer of Phase II Detoxication Enzymes.’ Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2007, 37(9-10):
Yeh, C.T., Yen, G.C., ‘Chemopreventive functions of sulforaphane: A potent inducer of antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis.’ Journal of Functional Foods, 2009, 1(1):23–32.
Choi, W.Y., Choi, B.T., Lee, W.H., Choi, Y.H., ‘Sulforaphane generates reactive oxygen species leading to mitochondrial perturbation for apoptosis in human leukaemia U937 cells.’ Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2008, 62(9):637–644.
Study by Singletary and MacDonald, Cancer Letters. University of Illinois, 2000.
Study conducted by a team at the Institute of Food Research at the Norwich Research Park, using prostate tissue from men and cancerous cells from mice. BioMed Central, Molecular Cancer, 2010.
Brooks, J.D. and Paton, V.G., Vidanes, G., ‘Potent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by Sulforaphane.’ Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 2001, 10:949–954.
Nair, S., Hebbar, V., Shen, G., Gopalakrishnan, V., Oo Khor, T, Yu, S., Xu, C., Kong, A.N., ‘Synergistic effects of a combination of dietary factors sulforaphane and (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate in HT-29 AP-1 human colon cancer cells.’ Pharmaceutical Research, 2008, 25(2):387–399.
Study by scientists at Comprehensive Cancer Center, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital, Ohio State University, and the Richard J. Solove Research Institute. Cancer Prevention Research, 29 June 2010.
Study by the research team at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York, presented to the American Association of Cancer Research in Philadelphia, November 2008.
International Journal of Oncology, August 2008.
H.J. Kim, B. Barajas, M. Wang, A.E. Nel, ‘Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane restores the age-related decrease of TH1 immunity: Role of dendritic cells.’ Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
Tang, L., Zhang, Y., ‘Dietary isothiocyanates inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma cells.’ Journal of Nutrition, 2004, 134(8):2004–2010.
Mingzhan Xue, Qingwen Qian, Adaikalakoteswari Antonysunil, Naila Rabbani, Roya Babaei-Jadidi, and Paul J. Thornalley, ‘Activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 reverses biochemical dysfunction of endothelial cells induced by hyperglycemia linked to vascular disease.’ University of Warwick, Diabetes, August 2008, 57:2809–2817.
Mukherjee, S., Gangopadhyay, H., Das, D.K., ‘Broccoli: A Unique Vegetable That Protects Mammalian Hearts through the Redox Cycling of the Thioredoxin Superfamily.’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2007, 56 (2):609–617.
Study by researchers from Imperial College London Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 2010.
M. Vermeulen, I.W.A.A. Klopping-Ketelaars, R. van den Berg, and W.H.J. Vaes, ‘Bioavailability and Kinetics of Sulforaphane in Humans after Consumption of Cooked versus Raw Broccoli.’ TNO Quality of Life, Netherlands, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, October 2008.
Study by a team from Massey University and Crop and Food Research in New Zealand, the Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the Johns Hopkins University in the United States, and the Waikato Medical Research Foundation. Presented to a meeting of the American Association of Cancer Research in Philadelphia.
Study by Talalay, P., Fahey, J.W., Healy, Z.R., Wehage, S.L., Benedict, A.L., Min, C., Dinkova-Kostova, A.T., ‘Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 2008, 104(44):17500–17505.
Dinkova-Kostova, A., Jenkins, S., Fahey, J., Ye, L., Wehage, S., Liby, K., Stephenson, K., Wade,
K., Talalay, P., ‘Protection against UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 high-risk mice by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts.’ Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 2005, 14(11): 243–252.
Study by Penn State College of Medicine scientists, Clinical Cancer Research, March 2009.
M.A. Riedl, A. Saxon, D. Diaz-Sanchez, ‘Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway.’ Clinical Immunology, March 2009, Vol. 130, Issue 3, pp. 244–251.
Study by researchers at Johns Hopkins University. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,
Vol. 102, No. 39:14010–14015.
U. Nothlings, S.P. Murphy, L.R. Wilkens, B.E. Henderson and L.N. Kolonel, ‘Flavonols and Pancreatic Cancer Risk —The Multiethnic Cohort Study.’ American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 166, Issue 8,
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Professor Jon Rhodes, University of Liverpool, study carried out in collaboration with experts in Sweden and Scotland. Gut, 2010.
Study by Zhe Lu, MD, PhD, Professor of Physiology, with a University of Pennsylvania research team. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, November 2009.
A. Yanaka, J.W. Fahey, A. Fukumoto, M. Nakayama, S. Inoue, S. Zhang, M. Tauchi, H. Suzuki, I. Hyodo, M. Yamamoto, ‘Dietary Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprouts Reduce Colonization and Attenuate Gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Mice and Humans.’ Cancer Prevention Research, April 2009, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 353–360.
Study by scientists in Japan. Lipids, August 2008.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, November 1997.
Study by Harvard researchers reviewing data from 66,940 women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Journal of Cancer, 15 November 2007.
A study by researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences found that neoxanthin induces death in prostate cancer cells. Journal of Nutrition, September 2004.
Study by researchers at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, a cohort with 3718 participants. Experimental Neurology, May 2005.
Study by Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson, Professor of Appetite Regulation, Lund University, Sweden. Reported on 11 March 2014.
Study by the University of Eastern Finland on nearly 3000 middle-aged and elderly Finnish people. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2012.
Sun, K., et al., ‘Low serum potassium level is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its related metabolic disorders.’ Clinical Endocrinology, 2013; DOI:10.1111/cen.12168.
Study on 1321 children in Hastings, New Zealand, aged 10–12 years, with detailed recording of diet, asthma and allergies, known as ISAAC (The International Study on Allergy and Asthma in Childhood). Reported by the NZPA.
Study from the University of Newcastle, presented at the American Thoracic Society International Conference, 2010.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 2007.
Tabak, C. and Wijga, A.H., ‘The International Study on Allergy and Asthma in Childhood. Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Utrecht University, University Medical Center Groningen. 1991, ongoing study.
Study review of medical records of more than 8000 people ages 2–85, from the Johns Hopkins Children’s study findings. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, May 2009.
Study by Charles Mackay and colleagues, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Australia. Nature,
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As tested by Pharmacia & Upjohn, Sweden.
Study by the medical centre team at the Respiratory Medicine Department, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo. Reported by japantimes.com, 1 July 2013.
Daniel Imhoff (ed.), From CAFO: The Tragedy of Industrial Animal Factories, Watershed Media and the Foundation for Deep Ecology. A book on Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO), 2010.
Study by a team of researchers and scientists from Florence University in Italy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2010. Reported by The Daily Telegraph, 2 August 2010.
Nimrit Goraya, MD, and colleagues, ‘Fruits and vegetables or oral NaHCO3 preserve GFR and reduce urine angiotensinogen, a marker of kidney angiotensin II activity, in stage III CKD.’ Texas A&M University, ASN 2012, presented at Kidney Week 2012. Reported by MedPage Today, 4 November 2012.
Feng He, MBBS, PhD, et al., ‘Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.’ Queen Mary University of London, British Medical Journal, 2013, DOI:10.1136/bmj.f1325.
Dr Domenico Palli and colleagues, study covering nearly 30,000 Italian women, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute, Florence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010.
Amrita Ahluwalia, PhD, et al., ‘Enhanced vasodilator activity of nitrite in hypertension: critical role for erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and translational potential.’ Queen Mary University of London, Hypertension: Journal of the American Heart Association, 2013.
Study by H. Du, L. Li, D. Bennett, Y. Guo, Z. Bian, J. Chen, T. Key, R. Collins, R. Peto and Z. Chen, University of Oxford, the Nuffield Department of Population Health, UK, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in Beijing and the National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment in Beijing. European Heart Journal, 2014, 35.
American Journal of Hypertension, April 2014.
Study by researchers on data from 93,600 women aged 25–42 enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study II, Harvard School of Public Health and University of East Anglia, UK. Circulation, 2013.
Study by scientists at the Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, MRC Cancer Unit and the University of Cambridge. Nature, 6 November 2014.
Denis Lairon and researchers, ‘Nutritional quality and safety of organic food. A review.’ University of Aix-Marseille for the French food agency (AFSSA). Agronomy for Sustainable Development Journal, July 2009.
Journal of Applied Nutrition, further publication information not available.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003.
The Firman E. Baer report from Rutgers University, further publication information not available.
Chemistry and Industry, Publication information not available.
B.A. Stracke, C.E. Rfer, F.P. Weibel, A. Bub, B. Watzl, ‘Three-Year Comparison of the Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Capacities in Organically and Conventionally Produced Apples.’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, May 2009.
US Department of Agriculture report, 2006.
Alyson E. Mitchell, PhD, Associate Professor and Food Chemist at UC Davis, and Alexander W. Chassy, ‘Antioxidants and the Nutritional Quality of Organic Agriculture.’ Presented at the annual meeting of the American Advancement of Science, Chicago, February 2009.
The Farming Systems Trial (FST)® at Rodale Institute is ‘America’s longest running, side-by-side comparison of organic and chemical agriculture comparing a manure-based organic system, a legume-based organic system, and a synthetic input-based conventional system.’
Study by John Reganold, Regents Professor of Soil Science, and colleagues, Washington State University. PLoS. Also see, Davis, D.R., ‘Declining fruit and vegetable nutrient composition: What is the evidence?’ American Society of Horticultural Science, 1 February 2009.
Barański, M., Srednicka-Tober, D., Volakakis, N., Seal, C., Sanderson, R., Stewart, G.B., Benbrook,
C., Biavati, B., Markellou, E., Giotis, C., Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J., Rembiałkowska, E., Skwarło-Sońta, K., Tahvonen, R., Janovská, D., Niggli, U., Nicot, P., Leifert, C., ‘Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses.’ British Journal of Nutrition, September 2014, 112(5):794–811, DOI:10.1017/S0007114514001366.
‘New Evidence Confirms the Nutritional Superiority of Plant-Based Organic Foods.’ Study from the 56-page State of Science Review, March 2008. Also see, ‘Fruit Quality, Antioxidant Capacity, and Flavonoid Content of Organically and Conventionally Grown Blueberries.’ Journal for Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 56, Issue 14, 2008, pp. 5788–5794.
‘Pesticides Residues Still Too High in Children’s Foods.’ Consumers Union, 2000.
Study by researchers in the US and Canada on 1139 children aged 8–15. Pediatrics, 17 May 2010. Also see, Bouchard, et al., ‘Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children.’
‘Pesticide Residues in Urine of Adults Living in the United States: Reference Range Concentrations.’ CDC, Environmental Research, November 1995, Vol. 71, Issue 2, pp. 99–10.
Pezzoli, G., Cereda, E., ‘Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease.’ Neurology 2013, 80:2035–2041.
DeKosky, S., et al., ‘Environmental exposures and the risk for Alzheimer disease: Can we identify the smoking guns?’ JAMA Neurology, 2014; DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.6031.
Lu, C., K. Toepel, R. Irish, R.A. Fenske, D.B. Barr and R. Bravo, ‘Organic diets significantly lower children’s dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides.’ Environmental Health Perspectives, 2006, 114 (2):260–3
The results of the annual New Zealand Food Safety Authority) survey, 28 July 2010.
Janice Stanger, PhD, The Perfect Formula Diet: How to Lose Weight and Get Healthy Now with Six Kinds of Whole Foods, Perfect Planet Solutions, 2009.
Oyebode, O., et al., ‘Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data.’ Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2014, DOI:10.1136/jech-2013–203500.
Dr Parashar’s work has been published in prestigious journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine and Circulation and used by CNN, CBS and National Public Radio. She is also a recipient of the American Heart Association Trudy Bush Fellowship Award for Cardiovascular Research in Women’s Health, which recognises outstanding work in the area of women’s health and cardiovascular disease. August 2014.
Esselstyn, C.B. and colleagues, ‘A way to reverse CAD?’ Cleveland Clinic. Journal of Family Practice 2014, 63(7):356–364.
As posted by the vegetarians of Washington, 10 April 2014.
Dr Michael Miedema, ‘Eating fruits, vegetables linked to healthier arteries later in life.’ The American College of Cardiology and ScienceDaily, 28 March 2014.
Study by Dr Thomas Seery, a Pediatric Cardiologist, and colleagues, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, on nearly 13,000 children taking annual physical check-ups. Presented to a meeting of the American College of Cardiology, Washington, 2014.
Dr Mozaffarian and his co-workers, ‘Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 29 May 2013.
Diets to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease 1957–2013. Summary statistics by everydayhealth.com,
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Saxena, N., Singh, S.P. and Raizada, A., ‘A comparative study on parameters of lipid metabolism and fasting blood sugar in normal vegetarians and non-vegetarians.’ Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences, 2012, 4(4):306–311.
Jenkins, D.J., Kendall, C.W. and Marchie, A., et al., ‘Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein.’ Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003, 290(4):502–510.
Jenkins, D.J., Jones, P.J. and Lamarche, B., et al., ‘Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial.’ Journal of the American Medical Association, 2011, 306(8):831–839.
Jenkins, D.J., Wong, J.M. and Kendall, C.W., et al., ‘The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate (“Eco-Atkins”) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects.’ Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009, 169(11):1046–1054.
Pettersen, B.J., Anousheh, R. and Fan, J., et al., ‘Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).’ Public Health Nutrition, 2012, ;15(10):1909–1916.
Tonstad, S., Butler, T., Yan, R. and Fraser, G.E., ‘Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes.’ Diabetes Care, 2009, 32(5):791–796.
Tantamango-Bartley, Y., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., Fan, J., Fraser, G., ‘Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population.’ Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Previews, 2013, 22:286–94.
Moukayed, M., Grant, W.B., ‘Molecular link between vitamin D and cancer prevention.’ Nutrients, 2013, 5(10):3993–4023.
Key, T.J., Appleby, P.N., Crowe, F.L., Bradbury, K.E., Schmidt, J.A., Travis, R.C., ‘Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians and 2246 vegans.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 4 June 2014.
Study by researchers at the National Institute for Health Research, Bristol Nutrition Biomedical Research Unit in Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle at University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol (NIHR Bristol Nutrition BRU), as part of the ProtecT study, on the diets and lifestyle of almost 14,000 men aged 50–69. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, August 2014.
A. Heather Eliassen ScD, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and colleagues, ‘Circulating Carotenoids and Risk of Breast Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Eight Prospective Studies.’ Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 6 December 2012.
B. Armstrong and R. Doll, ‘Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices.’ International Journal of Cancer, 1975, 15:617–31.
139. Study by Dr Maryam Farvid and colleagues, Harvard School of Public Health, on 88,803 American female nurses age 26–45. British Medical Journal, 2014.
Cho, E., Chen, W.Y., Hunter, D.J., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, G.A., Hankinson, S.E., et al., ‘Red meat intake and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.’ Archives of Internal Medicine, 2006, 166:2253–9.
World Cancer Research Fund International, ‘Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Breast Cancer Survivors 2014.’ Study based on the findings of the CUP Breast Cancer Survivors Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and the CUP Expert Panel discussion in June 2013; total number of women in the 85 studies reviewed was 164,416; WHO. Breast Cancer: prevention and control, 2014.
Jenkins, D.J., Wong, J.M. and Kendall, C.W., et al., ‘The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects.’ Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009, 169(11):1046–1054.
Pettersen, B.J., Anousheh, R., Fan, J., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., Fraser, G.E., ‘Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).’ Public Health Nutrition, 15 October 2012.
Berkow, S.E., Barnard, N.B., ‘Vegetarian diets and weight status.’ Nutrition Review, 2006, 64:175–188. Also see, Farmer, B., Larson, B.T., Fulgoni, V.L., Rainville, A.J., Liepa, G.U., ‘A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004.’ Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2011, 111:819–827.
Gabrielle M. Turner-McGrievy, PhD, RD, Charis R. Davidson, MPH, Ellen E. Wingard, MPH, RD, Sara Wilcox, PhD and Edward A. Frongillo, PhD, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, ‘Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: A randomized controlled trial of five different diets.’ The International Journal of Applied and Basic Nutritional Sciences, 2014.
The Hawaii Herald, http://thehawaiiherald.com/2014/08/okinawan-secrets-to-longevity/
The Gerontological Society Report, 2006, reported by China Daily, 6 September 2013.
Study by Bes-Rastrollo, M., ‘Costs of Mediterranean and Western dietary patterns and their relationship with prospective weight change.’ EuroPRevent European Society of Cardiology, 2013, Abstract 610, reported by MedPage Today, 23 April 2013.
The well-established, long-running and ongoing Adventist Health Studies, carried out by Loma Linda University, California, on 96,000 Adventists aged 30–112, from all across the USA and Canada, from 1974 to the present day.
Study by Gonzales, J.F., et al., ‘Applying the precautionary principle to nutrition and cancer.’ Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2014, DOI:10.1080/07315724.2013.866527. Data was analysed from the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective.
Professor Sabine Rohrmann, Professor of Epidemiology, University of Zurich, and a multinational group of scientists, ‘Meat consumption and mortality — results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.’ Study on 448,568 people aged 35–69, in ten European countries, for nearly 13 years. BioMedical Central Medicine, 6 March 2013.
MedPage Today, 5 September 2014.
Study by Dr Ulf Riserus, The Unit for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala Science Park, Sweden. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2014, 154.
Maryam S. Farvid, An Pan, Qi Sun, Stephanie E. Chiuve, Lyn M. Steffen, Walter C. Willett and Frank B. Hu, ‘Dietary Linoleic Acid and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.’ Circulation, 28 October 2014.
Reported by FNB News, 17 November 2012.
Rock, C.L., et al., ‘Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors.’ CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 2012; DOI:10.3322/caac.21142.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research 2007–2011 expert report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. This report is the most comprehensive ever published on the link between cancer and lifestyle.
Siera, S., et al., ‘Consuming a high-fat diet is associated with increased risk of certain types of breast cancer.’ Part of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition research, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 9 April 2014. Also see, Dr S. Sieri et al., Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori in Milan, ‘Dietary fat intake and development of specific breast cancer subtypes.’ Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2014, DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju068.
Ornish, D., Brown, S.E., Scherwitz, L.W., et al., ‘Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?’ Lancet, 1990, 336:129–133. Also, study by Morrison, L.M., ‘Diet in coronary atherosclerosis.’ JAMA, 1960, 173:884–888. Also see, Lyon, T.P., Yankley, A., Gofman, J.W., et al., ‘Lipoproteins and diet in coronary heart disease.’ California Medicine, 1956, 84:325–328. Also, Morrison, L.M., ‘Arteriosclerosis.’ JAMA, 1951, 145:1232–1236.
Rattue, Petra, ‘Red Meat Increases Risk Of Cancer, Heart Disease And Death.’ Medical News Today, MediLexicon Intl, 13 March 2012.
Pan, An, et al., ‘Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: 3 Cohorts of U.S. Adults and an Updated Meta-Analysis.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 10 August 2011. Also see, study by Pan, A, et al., ‘Changes in red meat consumption and subsequent risk of type II diabetes mellitus three cohorts of US men and women.’ JAMA Internal Medicine, DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6633. Also, study by Evans, W.J., ‘Oxygen-carrying proteins in meat and risk of diabetes mellitus.’ JAMA, DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.7399.
Study by Norat, T., Riboli, E., ‘Meat consumption and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic evidence.’ Nutrition Reviews, 2001, 59(2):37–47.
Skog, K.I., Johansson, M.A.E., Jagerstad, M.I., ‘Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence, and intake.’ Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1998, 36:879–896. Also, Meat Science, June 2011, 88(2):227–33.
Study by Professor Xifeng Wu and scientists at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, based on 12-year research findings on over 1700 people. Presented at the 101st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, Washington, DC, 2010.
Snyderwine, E.G., ‘Some perspectives on the nutritional aspects of breast cancer research: Food-derived heterocyclic amines as etiologic agents in human mammary cancer.’ Cancer, 1994, 74(3 suppl.):1070–1077.
Study conducted by researchers from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2010.
M. Wormuth, M. Scheringer, M. Vollenweider and K. Hungerbuhler, ‘What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic esters in Europeans?’ Risk Analysis, 2006, 26(3):803–824. Also see, Swan, S.H., ‘Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans.’ Environmental Research, 2008, 108(2):177–184.
Dr Lijinsky, biochemist, and Dr W.J. Visek, New York State College of Agriculture and Life Science of Cornell University.
Sinha, R., Rothman, N., Brown, E.D., et al., ‘High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5] pyridine [PhlP] occur in chicken but are dependent on the cooking method.’ Cancer Research, 1995, 55:4516–4519.
Researchers from Maastricht University and the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, J.G. Hogervorst, L.J. Schouten, E.J. Konings, R.A. Goldbohm, P.A. van den Brandt, ‘Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of renal cell, bladder, and prostate cancer.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, May 2008, Vol. 87, No. 5, pp. 1428–1438.
uk.reuters.com; www.msnbc.com; www.lancasterfarming.com
Stewart, Keith, ‘Where are the honest grocers?’ USA, 6 August 2010.
Herald on Sunday exposé report by the New Zealand Food Safety Authority conducting and testing of ten packets of randomly selected fresh chicken from five Auckland stores, with seven testing positive for campylobacter. Herald on Sunday, 30 January 2011.
Study on US federal data on foodborne illnesses, carried out by Glenn Morris and fellow researchers at the Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida. The Washington Post, 29 April 2011.
Chemist Michael Erikson, M.S. Sullivan and toxicologist Chad Sandusky, PhD, ‘Detection of Ph1P in Grilled Chicken Entrées at Popular Chain Restaurants Throughout California.’ Nutrition and Cancer, 18 September 2008.
Study announced by the Food and Drug Administration, 8 June 2011. Reported by USA Today and The Associated Press, 9 June 2011.
The Australian Chicken Meat Federation, 2011 Industry Report. Sydney Morning Herald, 20 November 2011.
Robert Koeth, et al., Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, ‘Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis’, and Dr Stanley Hazen, PhD, Chairman of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Vice Chair of Translational Research, Lerner Research Institute, Section Head of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation, Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic. Nature Medicine, April, DOI:10.1038/nm.3145. Also see, study by F.H. Karlsson, et al., ‘Symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with an altered gut metagenome.’ Nature Communications, 4 December 2012. Also,
T. Hesman Saey, ‘Gut bacteria come in three flavors.’ Science News, 21 May 2011, Vol. 179, p. 14.
W.H. Wilson Tang, MD, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute and Lerner Research Institute, and Stanley Hazen, MD, PhD, Chair of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Lerner Research Institute and Section Head of Preventive Cardiology & Rehabilitation, Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, ‘Prognostic value of elevated levels of intestinal microbe-generated metabolite trimethylamine-n-oxide in patients with heart failure: Refining the gut hypothesis.’ Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2014, 64:908–914.
Study by researchers over seven years looking at 900 participants. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2014.
Lösch, S., Moghaddam, N., Grossschmidt, K., Risser, D.U. and Kanz, F., ‘Stable Isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd ct. AD) — Implications for differences in diet.’ PLoS ONE, 15 October 2014. Also, Carter, M.J., ‘Archiereis and Asiarchs: A Gladiatorial Perspective.’ Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 2004, 44:41–68. Also, Carter, M.J., ‘Gladiators and Monomachoi: Greek Attitudes to a Roman “Cultural Performance”.’ International Journal of the History of Sport, 2009, 26:298–322.
Sayers, K. and Lovejoy, C.O. ‘Blood, bulbs, and bunodonts: on evolutionary ecology and the diets of Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and early Homo.’ Quarterly Review of Biology, December 2014, 89(4):319–57.
There is a vast amount of evidence that eating a plant-based wholefood diet lowers, and in some cases, reverses, heart disease and hypertension. This has been shown in the fasting studies, the chicken studies, the saturated fats studies, the fibre studies, the plant-based eating studies, and of course, the meat-is-directly-linked-to-heart-disease studies.
How to Cure High Blood Pressure’ Report: Dr Alan Goldhamer Water-Only Fasting for Hypertension
A healthy plant-based diet is simply mostly eating ‘plant-based wholefoods’ – such as apples rather than apple juice – as these are plant foods in their natural state, unrefined, and with their natural fibres, antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals intact. Eat mostly plant foods, mostly wholefoods, and you receive the benefits, as the centenarian cultures do:
Jason wishes to deeply thank, acknowledge and recognise the effort and contribution that the PIF Foundation has provided on a voluntary basis since 2014, as we educated, motivated and inspired change that helps transform the health, vitality and longevity of people all over the world.
Jason has loads of video content from events and interviews. Have a look at them here