There is a vast amount of evidence that eating a plant-based wholefood diet lowers, and in some cases, reverses, heart disease and hypertension. This has been shown in the fasting studies, the chicken studies, the saturated fats studies, the fibre studies, the plant-based eating studies, and of course, the meat-is-directly-linked-to-heart-disease studies.
A plant-based diet delivers the most successful heart disease study in history. A 100% hit rate curing heart disease, reversing artery damage and prolonging healthy life for decades, just through a plant-based, wholefood diet: Esselstyn CB, Ellis SG, Medendorp SV, et al. “A strategy to arrest and reverse coronary artery disease: a 5-year longitudinal study of a single physician’s practice.” J. Family Practice 41 (1995): 560-568.
Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, et al. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):233-240.
Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(16):1117-1124.
Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Key TJ. Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and non-vegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):597-603. Available at ajcn.nutrition.org/content/97/3/597.long
Gardner CD, Coulston A, Chatterjee L, et al. The effect of a plant-based diet on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(9):725-733.
Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(5):645-654.
Esselstyn CJ. “Introduction: more than coronary artery disease.” Am. J. Cardiol. 82 (1998): 5T-9T.
A plant-based diet wipes out heart disease; stay on drugs and typical diet – get much sicker. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?” Lancet 336 (1990): 129-133.
Heart attacks prevented by vegetarian diet. Study published in the December 3, 2012 issue of the journal Circulation. As reported by The Huffington Post on December 3, 2012 and by MyHealthNewsDaily on December 4, 2012.
Vegetarian diet cuts heart risk by 32%. Study by scientists at England’s University as published on January 31, 2013 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The study was funded by Cancer Research UK and the U.K.’s Medical Research Council and conducted by the university’s Cancer Epidemiology Unit, and reported by Bloomberg.com on January 31, 2013.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010;121(21):2271-2283.
Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990;336(8708):129-133.
D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2008;117(6):743-753.
Vegetarians have lower body fat levels than meat-eaters. Study by Nico S. Rizzo, PhD, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, DrPH, Joan Sabate, MD, DrPH and Gary E. Fraser, PhD “Nutrient Proﬁles of
Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Dietary Patterns” as published online in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics on August 28, 2013.
Vegetarians lose more weight and keep it off much longer than meat-eaters. The award winning study by Turner-McGrievy B, et al “How do plant-based achieve weight loss? Results of the New Dietary Interventions to Enhance the Treatment for Weight Loss (New DIETs) study” as presented on November 15 at a special session of The Obesity Society (TOS) Annual Meeting during Obesity Week, 2013; Abstract T-53-OR.
Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Cohen J, et al. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(10):1636-1645.
Dropping meat from your diet can decrease cholesterol levels by 10%-15%. A huge INTERHEART meta-analysis of 27 studies published in 2009 in the American Journal of Cardiology showed at least 90% of heart disease is lifestyle related.
Morrison LM. “Diet in coronary atherosclerosis.” JAMA 173 (1960): 884-888.
Lyon TP, Yankley A, Gofman JW, et al. “lipoproteins and diet in coronary heart disease.” California Med. 84 (1956): 325-328.
Morrison LM. “Arteriosclerosis.” JAMA 145 (1951): 1232-1236.
Valachovičová M, Krajčovičová-Kudláčková M, Blažíček P, Babinská K. No evidence of insulin resistance in normal weight vegetarians. A case control study. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45(1):52-54.
Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(8):1777-1783.
Kahleova H, Matoulek M, Malinska H, et al. Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011;28(5):549-559.
Barnard ND, Gloede L, Cohen J, et al. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(2):263-272.
Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, et al. Red meat consumption and mortality: results from 2 prospective cohort studies. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(7):555-563.
Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, et al. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(6):562-571.
Bhupathiraju SN, Wedick NM, Pan A, et al. Quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake and risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(6):1514-1523.
Rankin P, Morton DP, Diehl H, et al. Effectiveness of a volunteer-delivered lifestyle modification program for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109(1):82-86.
Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(13):1230-1238.
How to Cure High Blood Pressure’ Report: Dr Alan Goldhamer Water-Only Fasting for Hypertension
Hypertension, heart disease and diabetes all rising in adolescents and children. The 14-year study was published in the Annals of Neurology, a journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 2011. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed that Ischemic stroke hospitalization rates among adolescents and young adults aged 15-44 went up 37% between 1995 and 2008. Researchers analyzed risk factors and comorbidities in patients admitted for stokes with discharge data made available from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The study concluded that; 30% of patients aged 15-34 and over 50% aged 35-44 had hypertension; 25% of patients 35-44 had diabetes; and 25% of females 15-34, 30% of females 35-44 and 30% of males 15-44 were smokers. As reported by National Underwriter online news service on 1 September 2011.
Preventing the high death rate from cancer and heart disease. Researchers examined National Vital Statistics System data for 2008-2010 for deaths from heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, and unintentional injury. This accounted for 63% of all US deaths (before the age of 80) in 2010. The researchers examined the potential effect of bringing mortality rates from the five leading causes of death in the U.S., down to the current lowest recorded levels. Study by Yoon P, et al “Potentially preventable deaths from the five leading causes of death – United States, 2008-2010” as published by Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014; 63: 369-374. Four of the authors are WHO staff members. As reported by MedPage Today on May 4, 2014.
Young people with arteriosclerosis is high. Study by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Dr. Eric Larose, an interventional cardiologist at the Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Quebec and an assistant professor at Laval University, said the numbers from the study are “staggering”. For some young people, if a change in lifestyle is not made now, it could result in heart problems in early adulthood. As reported by Global News on October 26, 2011.
Teenagers now have heart disease markers. Study by Ashleigh L. May, MS, PhD, et al “Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among US adolescents, 1999 – 2008” as published in Pediatrics 2012;129(6):1035 on May 21, 2012. This research is part of the “Heart & Stroke 2012 Statistical Update Nontraditional Risk Factors and Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanistic, Research, and Clinical Considerations for Youth” review.
Teenagers with heart disease now widespread. Study presented at the Heart Failure Congress, May 19-22, 2012, in Belgrade, Serbia (the annual meeting of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology).
Overweight teenagers have heart damage already. Study presented at the Heart Failure Congress, May 19-22, 2012, in Belgrade, Serbia (the annual meeting of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology). Lead author Professor Gani Bajraktari, professor of internal medicine and cardiology at the University of Pristina in Kosovo, and colleagues, found that obese adolescents – even with no symptoms of heart disease – had damaged hearts with thicker walls. Their systolic and diastolic heart function was also impaired.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rising in children. Study by Vos MB, Welsh J “Prevalence of suspected NAFLD is increasing among U.S. adolescents” as presented at the annual Digestive Disease Week 2012 (Abstract 705), in San Diego to the gathering of nearly 16,000 physicians, researchers and academics. The researchers studied the information gleaned from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-2008 on 10,359 patients ages 12 to 18 and found that NAFLD in young people has risen so much it now affects 10% of children.
Big belly leads to fat around the heart. Study published online in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association and reported at the 2012 annual meeting of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE).
Severely obese kids have heart disease risk factors as early as age 2. Study published online July 23, 2012 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Over 20% of young people now have hypertension. Study published in Epidemiology by Nguyen Q, et al “Discordance in national estimates of hypertension among young adults” Epidemiology 2011; 22: 532-541.
Alcohol tied to hypertension in teenagers. Study by Le-Ha C, et al “Oral contraceptive use in girls and alcohol consumption in boys are associated with increased blood pressure in late adolescence” as published by the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 2012. As reported by MedPage Today on July 12, 2012.Hypertension cured through a plant-based diet and fasting. The study was published in the scientific, peer-reviewed and indexed, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 24, Number 5, June 2001. The paper, entitled Medically Supervised Water-only Fasting in the Treatment of Hypertension detailed our outstanding results in the treatment of 174 consecutive program participants presenting with high blood pressure. Almost 90% achieved blood pressure less than 140/90 (cured). This study demonstrated the remarkable effectiveness of water-only fasting in the treatment of the leading contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. A second study evaluating the effectiveness of fasting in the treatment of borderline high blood pressure was accepted for publication and appeared in the October 2002 issue of the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
Additional Heart Disease References:
- Belly fat and heart death risk. Study by S. Adabag, et al., ‘Risk of sudden cardiac death in obese individuals: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study’. Presented by the Heart Rhythm Society 2012, abstract PO1-67.
- ‘Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics — 2012 Update’ is a study published online in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association, 15 December 2011.
- US heart failure predictions study analysis published in Circulation: Heart Failure, 24 April 2013.
- ‘Older Americans 2010: Key Indicators of Well-Being’, a report compiled by 15 federal agencies in July 2010. The report found that the rate of death from Alzheimer’s rose almost 30-fold, from 6 per 100,000 people in 1981 to 176.9 per 100,000 in 2006.
- B. Jarett et al., ‘Lifetime Risks of Cardiovascular Disease.’ The New England Journal of Medicine, 2012.
- WHO estimates that the number of people that will die from cardiovascular diseases each year will reach 23.3 million by 2030.
- Report from the National Center for Cardiovascular China confirmed that China has 290 million patients with cardiovascular disease, 60 million more than the 230 million such patients in 2010. Reported by mizonews.com, 9 August 2013.
- The Australian Bureau of Statistics, August 2013.
- Indian heart disease numbers shared by Dr Khawar Kazmi, Section Head of Cardiology at Aga Khan University Hospital, during a talk on 2012 World Heart Day.
- Senior Cardiologist and Secretary of the Pakistan Cardiology Society, Professor Khan Shahzaman, said at a seminar on 29 September 2011, ‘By 2020 non-communicable diseases (NCDs) would account for 73% of Pakistani deaths, of which 50% would be cardiovascular disease.’
- Heart disease mortality expectations study on data from five long-running studies of US heart health, 1964–2008, published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) by Northwestern University cardiologist John Wilkins and colleagues, 7 November 2012. Also see, a US heart disease mortality study by Brent M. Egan, MD, Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), and colleagues, published in Circulation, 2013. The research was analysed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from three key study periods: 1988–1994, 1999–2004 and 2005–2010, reported 2 July 2013.
- Study by B. Jarett et al., ‘Lifetime Risks of Cardiovascular Disease.’ The New England Journal of Medicine, 27 January 2012.
- W. Ashton, K. Nanchahal and D. Wood, ‘Body mass index and metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease in women.’ European Heart Journal, 2001, 22: 46–55. Also see, European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics provided by the European Heart Network and the European Society of Cardiology, 2013.Hypertension, heart disease and diabetes all rising in adolescents and children. The 14-year study was published in the Annals of Neurology, a journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 2011. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed that Ischemic stroke hospitalization rates among adolescents and young adults aged 15-44 went up 37% between 1995 and 2008. Researchers analyzed risk factors and comorbidities in patients admitted for stokes with discharge data made available from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The study concluded that; 30% of patients aged 15-34 and over 50% aged 35-44 had hypertension; 25% of patients 35-44 had diabetes; and 25% of females 15-34, 30% of females 35-44 and 30% of males 15-44 were smokers. As reported by National Underwriter online news service on 1 September 2011.
Additional Heart Disease & Meat References:
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A healthy plant-based diet is simply mostly eating ‘plant-based wholefoods’ – such as apples rather than apple juice – as these are plant foods in their natural state, unrefined, and with their natural fibres, antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals intact. Eat mostly plant foods, mostly wholefoods, and you receive the benefits, as the centenarian cultures do:
Jason wishes to deeply thank, acknowledge and recognise the effort and contribution that the PIF Foundation has provided on a voluntary basis since 2014, as we educated, motivated and inspired change that helps transform the health, vitality and longevity of people all over the world.