- Where are we at now?
- Study by Bhaskaran, K., et al., ‘Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5·24 million UK adults.’ The Lancet, DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60892-8. Also see, study by Campbell, P.T., ‘Obesity: a certain and avoidable cause of cancer,’ The Lancet, 2014, DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61172-7.
- Study by Hongchao Pan and colleagues at the University of Oxford, Britain. Presented at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology beginning 30 May, in Chicago.
- Study by Lynn Matrisian, Vice President of Research and Medical Affairs at the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, Manhattan Beach, California. Cancer Research, online, 19 May 2014.
- Report by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using data from a 2012 national survey released to the press on 10 June 2014 and reported by The Washington Post, 11 June 2014.
- Study by Jing Li, PhD, Xi Li, PhD, Qing Wang, MS, Shuang Hu, PhD, Yongfei Wang, MS, Professor Frederick A. Masoudi, MD, Professor John A. Spertus, MD, Professor Harlan M. Krumholz, MD and Professor Lixin Jiang. ‘ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in China from 2001 to 2011 (the China PEACE-Retrospective Acute Myocardial Infarction Study): a retrospective analysis of hospital data’ as published in The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 24 June 2014, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60921-1.
- What have we learnt?
- Study by Kontis, V., et al., ‘Contribution of six risk factors to achieving the 25×25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target: a modeling study’, The Lancet, 2014, DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60616-4. Also see, study by Atun, R., ‘Decisive action to end apathy and achieve 25×25 NCD targets’, The Lancet, 2014, DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60616-4. Also see, study by Yoon, P., et al., ‘Potentially preventable deaths from the five leading causes of death — United States, 2008–2010’, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2014, 63: 369–374.
- Be prepared and control your environment
- The 2010 survey as commissioned by Sport and Recreation New Zealand (SPARC) in conjunction with the ministries of Health, Education and Youth Development, surveyed more than 2500 children and young people between the ages of five and 24. Sunday Star-Times, 19 September 2010.
- Michelle D. Florence, Mark Asbridge, Paul Veugelers, ‘Diet Quality and Academic Performance.’ Journal of School Health, April 2008, Vol. 78, No. 4.
- Honour thy bowel
- Study by Russell, W.R., Drew, J.E., Scobbie, L., Duthie, G.G., ‘Inhibition of cytokine-induced prostanoid biogenesis by phytochemicals in human colonic fibroblasts.’ Biochimica et Biophysica Acta at ScienceDirect.com, 2006; 1762:124–130. Also see, Russell, W.R., Scobbie, L., Chesson, A., Richardson, A.J., Stewart, C.S., Duncan, S.H., Drew, J.E., Duthie, G.G., ‘Anti-inflammatory implications of the microbial transformation of dietary phenolic compounds.’ Nutrition and Cancer, 2008; 60:636–642.
- Study by Professor Marian Waterman and colleagues, University of California, ‘What signaling directs a metabolic program of glycolysis and angiogenesis in colon cancer.’ Publication details untraceable, 13 May 2014.
- Smolińska, K., Paluszkiewicz, P., ‘Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to frequency and total amount of red meat consumption. Systematic review and meta-analysis.’ Archives of Medical Science, 30 August 2010, 6(4):605–10; Epub 7 September 2010.
- Study by researchers from Imperial College London and the Netherlands. BMJ, reported by BBC News, 11 November 2011.
- Give up what weakens you
- Study by Liu, L., Zubik, L., Collins, F.W., Marko, M., Meydani, M., ‘The anti-atherogenic potential of oat phenolic compounds.’ Atherosclerosis, 2004, 175:39–49. Also see, Davidson, A., The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press, p. 892.
Practise and persevere
- Do not smoke and avoid all smoky environments
- New Zealand Herald, 15 July 2010.
- Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2011. Reported in Sydney Morning Herald, 17 January 2011.
- 3. ‘Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.’ The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 11 August 2011.
- Dr Inga-Cecilie Soerheim, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, and the University of Bergen, Norway, study presented to The American Thoracic Society, San Diego, California, May 2009.
- Study by Daliao Xiao, Xiaohui Huang, Shumei Yang, Lubo Zhang, ‘Antenatal Nicotine Induces Heightened Oxidative Stress and Vascular Dysfunction in Rat Offspring.’ British Journal of Pharmacology, July 2011.
- Study meta-analysis by Dr Andy Parrot, Psychologist, and researchers, University of East London. American Psychologist, 2013.
- New Zealand smokers sucked out 1.62 mg of nicotine a cigarette, the second-highest amount tested. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2010.
- Study figures supplied by research company ACNielsen after the Government increased excise tax on factory-made cigarettes by 10% and on loose tobacco by 25% in April 2010.
- Study by Marcus R. Munafò, PhD, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 25 April 2012.
- As reported in the Murray Laugesen/Alistair Woodward paper by the New Zealand Ministry of Health. Publication information not available.
- Jean Seguin, Professor of Psychiatry, and Huijbregts, et al., ‘Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.’ University of Montreal, Development and Psychopathology, 2008, 20 (2): DOI:10.1017/S0954579408000217. Also see, research on 1745 children, University of Montreal. Development and Psychopathology, January 2009.
- Frank Bandiera, study on almost 3000 children aged 8–15, Miller School Of Medicine, University of Miami. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, April 2011. Also see, study by Hillel Alpert, Research Scientist, Harvard School of Public Health, on more than 55,000 children, as part of the 2007 National Survey on Children’s Health. Pediatrics, July 2011.
- Study by researchers as Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, reported in NZ Herald, 8 February 2011.
- Bo Hang and colleagues, ‘Third-hand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells’, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Mutagenesis, 2013.
- Martins-Green, M., et al., ‘Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: Implications for human health.’ PLoS ONE2014, 9: e86391.
- Awareness around alcohol
- Dr Geoff Robinson, Capital and Coast District Health Board’s Chief Medical Officer. The Dominion Post, 30 June 2010.
- Gonzales, J.F., et al., ‘Applying the precautionary principle to nutrition and cancer.’ Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2014, DOI:10.1080/07315724.2013.866527. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research report, ‘Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective.’ Melanie Nichols, British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, Department of Public Health, Oxford University, and colleagues, study meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 2012.
- Study by Inger Ariansen, Oslo University Hospital, over five years’ duration on 8830 men and women in Britain, Scandinavia and the US. Presented at the 2009 European Society of Cardiology congress, Barcelona.
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, study from death-certificate and alcohol-consumption data from 11 states: California, Florida, Michigan, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Virginia and Wisconsin. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 14 March 2014.
- Study review paper released by The Alcohol Policy Coalition, made up of the Heart Foundation and Australia’s leading health groups, 19 September 2011.
- Beilin, et al., ‘Alcohol & Hypertension — Kill or Cure?’ Journal of Human Hypertension, 1996, Suppl. 2: S1-5.
- Casolla, B., et al., ‘Heavy alcohol intake and intracerebral hemorrhage. Characteristics and effect on outcome.’ Neurology, 11 September 2012, 79:1109–1115.
- Study by the University of Sheffield. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2012; also Study data derived from a large occupational cancer study conducted in Montreal involving 3571 male participants, one of the most detailed examinations ever done of the relationship between drinking and cancer. Cancer Detection and Prevention, August 2009; and Schütze, M., et al., ‘Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study’. British Medical Journal, 7 April 2011, 342: d1584. PMID: 21474525. Also see, study released by Cancer Research UK, 20 August 2009, showing liver cancer more than tripled from 865 cases in 1975 to more than 3100 in 2006.
- Study by Colin M. Shapiro, Department of Psychiatry and Ophthalmology, University of Toronto; and Adrian J. Williams and Peter B. Fenwick, London Sleep Centre. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, April 2013.
- Study meta-analysis of six worldwide research papers by Harvard scientists on more than 320,000 women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998. Also see, study by Shield, K., Parry, C., and Rehm, J., ‘Chronic diseases and conditions related to alcohol use.’ Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 2013, 35(2):155–173.
- Study on 1200 men aged 18–28, after medical examinations from 2008 and 2012. BMJ Open, October 2014.
- The Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre study on nearly 2000 families for over four years. The Daily Mail and AAP, Australia, 8 September 2014.
- Australian Government Report, ‘Alcohol beverage advertising in mainstream Australian media 2005 to 2007: Expenditure and Exposure.’ Undertaken by the Victorian Department of Human Services for the Monitoring of Alcohol Advertising Committee. This report is a follow-up to research published by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing in 2005.
- Consider coffee carefully
- Zhang, Z., et al., ‘Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011, 93:1212. Also see, O’Keefe, J., et al., ‘Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardio-metabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.’ Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013, 62:1043.
- Jennifer Temple, PhD, and colleagues, ‘Cardiovascular responses to caffeine by gender and pubertal stage’. University at Buffalo. Pediatrics, 2014, DOI:10.1542/peds.2013–3962. Also, Du, H., et al., ‘Fresh fruit consumption, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million adults in the China Kadoorie Biobank.’ Presented to the European Society of Cardiology, 2014.
- Mos, L, et al., ‘Coffee consumption and risk of prediabetes in hypertension: results of the HARVEST study.’ European Society of Cardiology, 2014. Also, Schwandt, P., et al., ‘Body fat distribution and elevated blood pressure in 22051 youths: The PEP family heart study.’ Presented to the European Society of Cardiology, 2014.
- Study by I.C. Burckhardt, D. Gozal, E. Dayyat, Y. Cheng, R.C. Li, A.D. Goldbart and B.W. Row, ‘Green Tea Catechin Polyphenols Attenuate Behavioral and Oxidative Responses to Intermittent Hypoxia.’ American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2007, Vol. 177, pp. 1135–1141, DOI:10.1164/rccm.200701-110OC; and Study by Yamada, H., Takuma, N., Daimon, T. and Hara, Y., ‘Gargling with tea catechin extracts for the prevention of influenza infection in elderly nursing home residents: a prospective clinical study.’ Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, September 2006, 12(7):669–72.
- Need to exercise every day (NEED)
- Toni, N., et al., Nature Neuroscience, June 2007, 10(6):727–34. Also see, Pereira, A., et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007, 104:5638–5643.
- Study by Dr Phyllis Zee, Northwestern University, Chicago, funded by the National Institute on Aging, 2010.
- Study by Van Proeyen, K., Szlufcik, K., Nielens, H., Pelgrim, K., Deldicque, L., Hesselink, M., van Veldhoven, P.P., Hespe, P., from the Research Centre for Exercise and Health, Department of Biomedical Kinesiology, University of Leuven, Belgium. The Journal of Physiology, 2010.
- Study by Dr Riadh Sadik, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2011.
- Eat a local, seasonal, balanced, plant-based, wholefood diet
- The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study, The Lancet; 2010 Heart and Stroke Statistics Report, The American Heart Association and the WHO.
- Åkesson, Agneta, et al., ‘Combined Effect of Low-Risk Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviours in Primary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction in Women.’ Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 167, No. 19, 22 October 2007. Also see, study on data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988–1994, analysed by Rathod, A.D., et al., ‘Healthy eating index and mortality in a nationally representative elderly cohort.’ Archives of Internal Medicine, 2012, 172(3): 275–277.
- Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 136, pp. 2606–2610. Also see, study of nearly 135,000 Shanghai adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, online, 18 May 2011.
- Patrice Carter and colleagues, Diabetes Research Unit, Leicester University. British Medical Journal, 2010.
- American Journal of Hypertension, April 2014; also Study by Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Los Angeles School of Public Health, Journal of the American Dietetic Society, Vol. 106, pp. 1394–1404. Also see, study by Dr Chaoyang Li of the US CDC, in Atlanta. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2010. Also, study by Hung H.C., Joshipura, K.J., Jiang, R., ‘Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease.’ Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2004, 96:1577–1584.
Consumer Reports National Research Center report, April 2009. Also see, study from the Department of Nutritional Sciences at Pennsylvania State University, Physiology and Behavior, 19 March 2009.
Study by University of Sydney researchers. Diabetes Care, August 2007. Also see, study by R. Villegas, X.O. Shu, Y.T. Gao, G. Yang, T. Elasy, H. Li, W. Zheng, ‘Vegetable but not fruit consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese women.’ Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 138, pp. 574–580.
From the meta-analysis by scientists from France’s INSERM in Paris, Lille’s Pasteur Institute, and Rouen’s Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 136, pp. 2588–2593.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2001, 20:71–80.
Study by N.T. Akbaraly, H. Faure, V. Gourlet, A. Favier, C. Berr, ‘Plasma Carotenoid Levels and Cognitive Performance in an Elderly Population: Results of an EVA Study.’ Journal of Gerontology: Medical Science, Vol. 62A, No. 3, pp. 308–316.
Study by L. Tang, G.R. Zirpoli, K. Guru, K.B. Moysich, Y. Zhang, C.B. Ambrosone, S.E. McCann, ‘Consumption of Raw Cruciferous Vegetables is Inversely Associated with Bladder Cancer Risk.’ CancerEpidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 1 April 2008, Vol. 17, pp. 938–944, DOI:10.1158/1055–9965.EPI-07-2502.
Zhang, Y., et al., ‘Cherry consumption and the risk of recurrent gout attacks.’ Arthritis & Rheumatism 2012; DOI:10.1002/art.34677.
Rautiainen S. and fellow researchers, study on the Swedish Mammography Cohort, ‘Total antioxidant capacity of diet and risk of stroke: A population-based prospective cohort study.’ Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association, 2011.
- Study by scientists at the Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, MRC Cancer Unit and the University of Cambridge. Nature, 6 November 2014.
- Study by John Reganold, Regents Professor of Soil Science, and colleagues, Washington State University. PLoS. Also see, Davis, D.R., ‘Declining fruit and vegetable nutrient composition: What is the evidence?’ American Society of Horticultural Science, 1 February 2009.
- Berkow, S.E., Barnard, N.B., ‘Vegetarian diets and weight status.’ Nutrition Review, 2006, 64:175–188. Also see, Farmer, B., Larson, B.T., Fulgoni, V.L., Rainville, A.J., Liepa, G.U., ‘A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004.’ Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2011, 111:819–827.
- Study by Gonzales, J.F., et al., ‘Applying the precautionary principle to nutrition and cancer.’ Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2014, DOI:10.1080/07315724.2013.866527. Data was analysed from the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective.
- Skog, K.I., Johansson, M.A.E., Jagerstad, M.I., ‘Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence, and intake.’ Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1998, 36:879–896. Also, Meat Science, June 2011, 88(2):227–233.
- Eat less and live long with Regular Intelligent Fasting (RIF)
- Study by Dr Benjamin Horne, PhD, Director of Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology, and colleagues, Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute, Murray, Utah. Presented at the 2014 American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions in San Francisco, CA, in June 2014.
- Raw, soaked, sprouted and fermented
- Study by Dr Mark Primentel, Co-director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Programme, Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre, 2010.
- N. Bekkali, M.E.J. Bongers, M.M. Van den Berg, O. Liem, and M.A. Benninga from the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, ‘The role of a probiotics mixture in the treatment of childhood constipation: a pilot study.’ Nutrition Journal, September 2007, 6:17, DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-6-17. Also see, study by researchers from Imperial College, London. British Medical Journal, DOI:10.1136/bmj.39231.599815.55. also: Niedzielin, K., Kordecki and H Birkenfeld, B., ‘A study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.’ European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2001, 13(10):1143–7. Also: A.J. Cox, D.B. Pyne, P.U. Saunders and P.A. Fricker, Australian Institute of Sport, ‘Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VR1-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes.’ British Journal of Sports Medicine, February 2008. Also see, study published in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2007, Vol. 17, pp. 352–363. Also see, double blind and placebo-controlled study on 326 children in China conducted during the winter cold and flu season. Pediatrics, August 2009. Also: Study by Bi Rong Dong, MD, and colleagues of Sichuan University, China, The Cochrane Library, Hao, Q., et al., ‘Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011, 9:CD006895. Also: Study on 942 men and women, aged 40–79 by researchers at Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan. Journal of Periodontology, February 2008. Also: Kamal Ivory, S.J. Chambers, C. Pin, E. Prieto, J.L. Arques and C. Nicoletti, The Institute of Food Research, ‘Oral delivery of Lactobacillus casei Shirota modifies allergen-induced immune responses in allergic rhinitis.’ Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 28 May 2008. Also: V. Stadlbauer, R.P. Mookerjee, S. Hodges, G.A.K. Wright, N.A. Davies and R. Jalan, researchers at University College London, ‘Effect of probiotic treatment on deranged neutrophil function and cytokine responses in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis.’ Journal of Hepatology, 25 March 2008, 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.02.015.
- D.A. Osborn and J.K. Sinn, The Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia, ‘Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity.’ The study covered over 2000 infants from eight studies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007, Issue 4.
Study by the Karolinska Institutet as part of the major Europe-wide EU-sponsored SynCan project, as supported by the European Commission and nine different research institutes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, August 2007.
- Fujimori, K. Gudis, K. Mitsui, T. Seo, M. Yonezawa, S. Tanaka, A. Tatsuguchi and C. Sakamoto, ‘A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of synbiotic versus probiotic or prebiotic treatment to improve the quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis.’ Nutrition, February 2009.
- Andreas Leibbrandt, Christiane Meier, Marielle König-Schuster, Regina Weinmüllner, Donata Kalthoff, Bettina Pflugfelder, Philipp Graf, Britta Frank-Gehrke, Martin Beer, Tamas Fazekas, Hermann Unger, Eva Prieschl Grassauer and Andreas Grassauer, ‘Iota-Carrageenan is a Potent Inhibitor of Influenza A Virus Infection.’ PLoS ONE: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014320.
- Piya, M.K., et al., ‘Meal size and frequency influences metabolic endotoxaemia and inflammatory risk but has no effect on diet induced thermogenesis in either lean or obese subjects.’ Presented at the Society for Endocrinology BES Conference, 2014.
- Study by senior researcher Dr Riadh Sadik, of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, on 102 adults with bowel problems. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2011.
- Alkaline balance is crucial (ABC)
- Study by Nicholas Christakis, Professor of Medical Sociology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, and James Fowler, Political Scientist, University of California, San Diego. They looked at data from 4700 children of volunteers in the Framingham Heart Study. British Medical Journal, December 2008.
Study analysis on data collected from 1880 people who lived in Framingham, Massachusetts. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 2010, reported by the Sydney Morning Herald, 25 July 2010.
- Treat sleep like gold
- Study covering analysis of 16 varied studies on over 1.3 million people. University of Warwick and the Federico II University Medical School, Naples. Sleep, 2010.
Study numbers from the National Center for Health Statistics on 80,000 Americans. Reviewed by the Woolcock Institute of Medical Research in Sydney, May 2008.
- Researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Study on 5036 girls and women. Journal of Pediatrics.
Study by Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Assistant Professor of Clinical Nutrition Medicine, and colleagues, Columbia University. Presented to the American Heart Association conference in Atlanta, 2011.
Study by Esther Donga, Director, Leiden University Medical Centre, the Netherlands. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, May 2010.
- Study by Dr James Gangwisch, Columbia University Medical Centre. Study of 15,659 college and high-school students. Sleep, January 2010
- Dr Chien-Yi Hsu, Division of Cardiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Study on more than 43,000 people age 45+ that were part of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Presented 4 November to the American Heart Association, in Los Angeles. Also see, study by Francesco Cappuccio, Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, Medical School, University of Warwick, UK. A ten-year analysis of over 10,000 government workers. Presented to the annual conference of the British Sleep Society, at Cambridge, September 2007.
Jason wishes to deeply thank, acknowledge and recognise the effort and contribution that the PIF Foundation has provided on a voluntary basis since 2014, as we educated, motivated and inspired change that helps transform the health, vitality and longevity of people all over the world.