“Our research shows the impact of eating red and processed meat every day and is the first large UK study to look at the amount of meat people are eating now. By comparing those who eat meat every day with those who eat it once a week or less we can see the benefits of cutting down. If you’re eating red or processed meat every day it’s a good idea to try having meat-free days…”
Dr Kathryn Bradbury, nutritional epidemiologist at the University of Oxford.
The link between eating meat and the incidence of bowel cancer have been shown very clearly in many different studies over many years now. This research is strong, peer-reviewed and widespread. Even the mainstream conservative cancer organisations recommend eating far less meat than most of us do each day. The last few years have seen meat take a real pounding with paper after paper arriving almost weekly, showing the negative health aspects to eating meat. This week is no different. This research has found that ‘people who eat meat daily are 40% more likely to get bowel cancer compared to those who eat meat once a week or less’. This from scientists who studied the diets of 500,000 UK people aged 40-69 years old.
“This research suggests how much higher the risk of bowel cancer is if you eat red or processed meats every single day. But the evidence is increasingly clear that cutting down on these meats – along with being a non-smoker, keeping a healthy weight, drinking less alcohol, being physically active and eating a diet that is high in fibre could help to prevent half of bowel cancer cases”
Professor Charles Swanton, chair of the 2015 NCRI cancer conference.
I do not recommend you eat meat, as the myriad of scientific evidence (as covered thoroughly in my book My 20 Golden Rules, page 163-251), and robust research from the world’s longest lived centenarian cultures shows us. Just as the human race has done for centuries.
There is a vast amount of evidence that eating a plant-based wholefood diet lowers, and in some cases, reverses, heart disease and hypertension. This has been shown in the fasting studies, the chicken studies, the saturated fats studies, the fibre studies, the plant-based eating studies, and of course, the meat-is-directly-linked-to-heart-disease studies.
A healthy plant-based diet is simply mostly eating ‘plant-based wholefoods’ – such as apples rather than apple juice – as these are plant foods in their natural state, unrefined, and with their natural fibres, antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals intact. Eat mostly plant foods, mostly wholefoods, and you receive the benefits, as the centenarian cultures do:
Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: a Global Perspective (the Third Expert Report – 2019) is a comprehensive analysis, using the most meticulous methods, of the worldwide body of evidence on preventing and surviving cancer through diet, nutrition and physical activity. It builds on the ground-breaking achievements of the First and Second Expert Reports, published in 1997 and 2007 respectively.
Eating meat leads to type II diabetes and modern lifestyle cancers of the breast, bowel, prostate and lungs: References
- Study by the University of Washington School of Medicine was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2012. Nearly 50% of Native Americans develop diabetes by age 55. The researchers surveyed 2,000 Native Americans without diabetes from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota about their diets. After five years, a follow-up survey found that 243 people had developed diabetes. Among the 500 people in the original study group who ate the most canned processed meat, 85 developed diabetes. In contrast, those who ate the least amount, just 44 developed the disease. The people who ate the most processed meats tended also to be heavier with larger waistlines. Canned meat is available freely to many Native Americans on reservations as part of the US Department of Agriculture food assistance program. Dariush Mozaffarian, a professor at the Harvard School of Public Health and his colleagues conducted a 2009 analysis that found that processed meats were tied to a 19% higher diabetes risk. Article originally titled “’Spam’ meat tied to diabetes risk in Native Americans, study finds” as reported by foxnews.com and Reuters on January 31, 2012.
- World Cancer Research Fund International, ‘Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Breast Cancer Survivors 2014.’ Study based on the findings of the CUP Breast Cancer Survivors Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and the CUP Expert Panel discussion in June 2013; total number of women in the 85 studies reviewed was 164,416; WHO. Breast Cancer: prevention and control, 2014.
- The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study, The Lancet; 2010 Heart and Stroke Statistics Report, The American Heart Association and the WHO.
- Norat, T., Riboli, E., ‘Meat consumption and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic evidence.’ Nutrition Reviews, 2001, 59(2):37–47.
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- Dr Michael Miedema, ‘Eating fruits, vegetables linked to healthier arteries later in life.’ The American College of Cardiology and ScienceDaily, 28 March 2014.
- Study by researchers on data from 93,600 women aged 25–42 enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study II, Harvard School of Public Health and University of East Anglia, UK. Circulation, 2013.
- Pettersen, B.J., Anousheh, R. and Fan, J., et al., ‘Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).’ Public Health Nutrition, 2012, ;15(10):1909–1916. The Adventist Health Study is a cohort investigation that has been tracking since 1974. Researchers at the Center for Health Research, headquarters for the Adventist Health Study, and every scientist, researcher, doctor and professor has agreed that the lifestyle these people follow is amongst the healthiest in the world and it gives the Adventists strong protection against all the deadly diseases that are crippling the modern world while delivering ten times more centenarians than the US average.
- Tonstad, S., Butler, T., Yan, R. and Fraser, G.E., ‘Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes.’ Diabetes Care, 2009, 32(5):791–796.
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- Swedish study by Bellavia, A., Larsson, S.C., Bottai, M., Wolk, A., Orsini, N., ‘Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: a dose-response analysis.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition online, 26 June 2013.
- Steinmetz, K.A., et al., a review of over 206 epidemiological studies. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1996, 96 (10):1027–39. Also see, Potter, J.D., ‘Vegetables, fruit, and cancer.’ Lancet, August 2005, 366(9485): 527–30. Also, Smith-Warner, S.A., et al., ‘Fruits, vegetables, and adenomatous polyps: the Minnesota Cancer Prevention Research Unit case-control study.’ American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(12): 1104–13, June 2002.
- Pan, An, et al., ‘Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: 3 Cohorts of U.S. Adults and an Updated Meta-Analysis.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 10 August 2011.
- Pan, A, et al., ‘Changes in red meat consumption and subsequent risk of type II diabetes mellitus three cohorts of US men and women.’ JAMA Internal Medicine, DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6633.
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- “Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: 3 Cohorts of U.S. Adults and an Updated Meta-Analysis,” An Pan, et al., was published 10 August 2011 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The large study was led by An Pan, research fellow in the Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition, and Dr. Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health. The research included 37,083 men followed for 20 years in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; 79,570 women followed for 28 years in the Nurses’ Health Study I; and 87,504 women followed for 14 years in the Nurses’ Health Study II.
- “Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies”, as published in Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52(2):96-104 and Ann Nutr Metab. 2010;56(3):232., by Vang A, Singh PN, Lee JW, Haddad EH, Brinegar CH from the Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA. This research was “a prospective cohort study examining the relation between diet and incident diabetes recorded among 8,401 cohort members (ages 45-88 years) of the Adventist Mortality Study and Adventist Health Study”.
- “Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies” by Aune D, Ursin G, Veierød MB as published in Diabetologia. 2009 Nov;52(11):2277-87. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1481-x. Epub 2009 Aug 7, 2009, by researchers at the Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, in Norway. Åkesson, Agneta, et al., ‘Combined Effect of Low-Risk Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviours in Primary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction in Women.’ Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 167, No. 19, 22 October 2007.
- Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988–1994, analysed by Rathod, A.D., et al., ‘Healthy eating index and mortality in a nationally representative elderly cohort.’ Archives of Internal Medicine, 2012, 172(3): 275–277.
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- Vlad, M., et al., ‘Effect of Cuprofilin on Experimental Atherosclerosis.’ Romania, Institute of Public Health and Medical Research, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoka, 1995.
- Study analysis from an international retrospective case-control study of acute nonfatal MI, the INTERHEART study, as well as FINRISK, of cardiovascular disease in Finland, by Do, R., et al., ‘The effect of chromosome 9p21 variants on cardiovascular disease may be modified by dietary intake: Evidence from a case/control and a prospective study.’ PLoS Medicine 2011, 9(10): e1001106.
- Hung H.C., Joshipura, K.J., Jiang, R., ‘Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease.’ Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2004, 96:1577–1584.
- P.N. Mitrou, V. Kipnis, A.C.M. Thiebaut, J. Reedy, A.F. Subar, E. Wirfalt, A. Flood, T. Mouw, A.R. Hollenbeck, M.F. Leitzmann, A. Schatzkin, ‘Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Prediction of All-Cause Mortality in a US Population — Results From the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.’ Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 167, No. 22, pp. 2461–2468.
- Rautiainen S. and fellow researchers, study on the Swedish Mammography Cohort, ‘Total antioxidant capacity of diet and risk of stroke: A population-based prospective cohort study.’ Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association, 2011.
- Study by Dr Frank B. Hu, of the departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, on 833,234 people. BMJ, 2014, 349:g4490, 29 July 2014.
- Daniel Imhoff (ed.), From CAFO: The Tragedy of Industrial Animal Factories, Watershed Media and the Foundation for Deep Ecology. A book on Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO), 2010.
- Feng He, MBBS, PhD, et al., ‘Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.’ Queen Mary University of London, British Medical Journal, 2013, DOI:10.1136/bmj.f1325.
Jason wishes to deeply thank, acknowledge and recognise the effort and contribution that the PIF Foundation has provided on a voluntary basis since 2014, as we educated, motivated and inspired change that helps transform the health, vitality and longevity of people all over the world.