Steffen, M., et al., ‘The effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure and the development of hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis.’ Journal of Hypertension, 2012, 30:2245.
Giggey, P.P., et al., ‘Greater coffee intake in men is associated with steeper age-related increases in blood pressure.’ American Journal of Hypertension, 2011, 24:310.
Mort, J.R., et al., ‘Timing of blood pressure measurement related to caffeine consumption.’ Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2008, 41:105.
Zhang, Z., et al., ‘Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011, 93:1212.
O’Keefe, J., et al., ‘Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.’ Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013, 62:1043.
Jennifer Temple, PhD, and colleagues, ‘Cardiovascular responses to caffeine by gender and pubertal stage.’ University at Buffalo. Pediatrics, 2014, DOI:10.1542/peds.2013–3962.
Du, H., et al., ‘Fresh fruit consumption, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million adults in the China Kadoorie Biobank.’ Presented to the European Society of Cardiology, 2014.
Mos, L, et al., ‘Coffee consumption and risk of prediabetes in hypertension: results of the HARVEST study.’ European Society of Cardiology, 2014.
Schwandt, P., et al., ‘Body fat distribution and elevated blood pressure in 22051 youths: The PEP family heart study.’ Presented to the European Society of Cardiology, 2014.
Drici, M.D., et al., ‘Cardiac safety of so called “energy drinks”.’ Presented to the European Society of Cardiology, 2014.
Study by Eun Sun Jang, Sook-Hyang Jeong, Sung Ho Hwang, Hyun Young Kim, So Yeon Ahn, Jaebong Lee, Sang Hyub Lee, Young Soo Park, Jin Hyeok Hwang, Jin-Wook Kim, Nayoung Kim and Dong Ho Lee. Biomedical Central Gastroenterology, 2012, 12:145, DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-12-145, 18 October 2012.
Study by Morck, T.A., Lynch, S.R., and Cook, J.D., ‘Inhibition of food iron absorption by coffee.’ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1983, 37:416–420.
Study by Solomons, N.W., and Cousins, R.J., ‘Inhibitors of zinc absorption (coffee) in N.W. Solomons and I.H. Rosenberg (eds), Absorption and Malabsorption of Mineral Nutrients, p. 161. Alan R. Liss, New York, 1984.
Study by Cabrera-Chavez, F., et al., ‘Maize Prolamins Resistant to Peptic-tryptic Digestion Maintain Immune-recognition by IgA from Some Celiac Disease Patients’ Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2012, 67(1): pp. 24–30.
Vojdani, A., ‘Cross-Reaction between Gliadin and Different Food and Tissue Antigens.’ 2013, 4(1):20–32.
There is a vast amount of evidence that eating a plant-based wholefood diet lowers, and in some cases, reverses, heart disease and hypertension. This has been shown in the fasting studies, the chicken studies, the saturated fats studies, the fibre studies, the plant-based eating studies, and of course, the meat-is-directly-linked-to-heart-disease studies.
Additional Heart Disease References:
- Belly fat and heart death risk. Study by S. Adabag, et al., ‘Risk of sudden cardiac death in obese individuals: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study’. Presented by the Heart Rhythm Society 2012, abstract PO1-67.
- ‘Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics — 2012 Update’ is a study published online in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association, 15 December 2011.
- US heart failure predictions study analysis published in Circulation: Heart Failure, 24 April 2013.
- ‘Older Americans 2010: Key Indicators of Well-Being’, a report compiled by 15 federal agencies in July 2010. The report found that the rate of death from Alzheimer’s rose almost 30-fold, from 6 per 100,000 people in 1981 to 176.9 per 100,000 in 2006.
- B. Jarett et al., ‘Lifetime Risks of Cardiovascular Disease.’ The New England Journal of Medicine, 2012.
- WHO estimates that the number of people that will die from cardiovascular diseases each year will reach 23.3 million by 2030.
- Report from the National Center for Cardiovascular China confirmed that China has 290 million patients with cardiovascular disease, 60 million more than the 230 million such patients in 2010. Reported by mizonews.com, 9 August 2013.
- The Australian Bureau of Statistics, August 2013.
- Indian heart disease numbers shared by Dr Khawar Kazmi, Section Head of Cardiology at Aga Khan University Hospital, during a talk on 2012 World Heart Day.
- Senior Cardiologist and Secretary of the Pakistan Cardiology Society, Professor Khan Shahzaman, said at a seminar on 29 September 2011, ‘By 2020 non-communicable diseases (NCDs) would account for 73% of Pakistani deaths, of which 50% would be cardiovascular disease.’
- Heart disease mortality expectations study on data from five long-running studies of US heart health, 1964–2008, published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) by Northwestern University cardiologist John Wilkins and colleagues, 7 November 2012. Also see, a US heart disease mortality study by Brent M. Egan, MD, Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), and colleagues, published in Circulation, 2013. The research was analysed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from three key study periods: 1988–1994, 1999–2004 and 2005–2010, reported 2 July 2013.
- Study by B. Jarett et al., ‘Lifetime Risks of Cardiovascular Disease.’ The New England Journal of Medicine, 27 January 2012.
- W. Ashton, K. Nanchahal and D. Wood, ‘Body mass index and metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease in women.’ European Heart Journal, 2001, 22: 46–55. Also see, European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics provided by the European Heart Network and the European Society of Cardiology, 2013.Hypertension, heart disease and diabetes all rising in adolescents and children. The 14-year study was published in the Annals of Neurology, a journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 2011. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed that Ischemic stroke hospitalization rates among adolescents and young adults aged 15-44 went up 37% between 1995 and 2008. Researchers analyzed risk factors and comorbidities in patients admitted for stokes with discharge data made available from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The study concluded that; 30% of patients aged 15-34 and over 50% aged 35-44 had hypertension; 25% of patients 35-44 had diabetes; and 25% of females 15-34, 30% of females 35-44 and 30% of males 15-44 were smokers. As reported by National Underwriter online news service on 1 September 2011.
Additional Heart Disease & Meat References:
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- S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2015. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.
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- Daniel CR, Cross AJ, Koebnick C, Sinha R. Trends in meat consumption in the USA. Public Health Nutr2011;357:575-83. doi:10.1017/S1368980010002077 pmid:21070685.
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- Nagao M, Iso H, Yamagishi K, Date C, Tamakoshi A. Meat consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr2012;357:687-93. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.6 pmid:22333876.
- Rohrmann S, Linseisen J. Processed meat: the real villain?Proc Nutr Soc2016;357:233-41. doi:10.1017/S0029665115004255 pmid:26621069.
- Micha R, Michas G, Mozaffarian D. Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes–an updated review of the evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep2012;357:515-24. doi:10.1007/s11883-012-0282-8 pmid:23001745.
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- Schöttker B, Saum KU, Jansen EH, Holleczek B, Brenner H. Associations of metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers with total morbidity and multi-morbidity in a large cohort of older German adults. Age Ageing2016;357:127-35. doi:10.1093/ageing/afv159 pmid:26563887.
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- Cross AJ, Pollock JR, Bingham SA. Haem, not protein or inorganic iron, is responsible for endogenous intestinal N-nitrosation arising from red meat. Cancer Res2003;357:2358-60.pmid:12750250.
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A healthy plant-based diet is simply mostly eating ‘plant-based wholefoods’ – such as apples rather than apple juice – as these are plant foods in their natural state, unrefined, and with their natural fibres, antioxidants, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals intact. Eat mostly plant foods, mostly wholefoods, and you receive the benefits, as the centenarian cultures do:
Jason wishes to deeply thank, acknowledge and recognise the effort and contribution that the PIF Foundation has provided on a voluntary basis since 2014, as we educated, motivated and inspired change that helps transform the health, vitality and longevity of people all over the world.