High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with increased risk for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, progesterone-receptor-positive breast cancer and increased risk for HER2-negative breast cancer. Of the 7,860 women studied, those with the highest saturated fat intake had a significantly increased risk of all three breast cancer types. Study by Siera S, et al “Consuming a high-fat diet is associated with increased risk of certain types of breast cancer” as part of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) research, as published online on April 9, 2014 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Preventing the high death rate from cancer and heart disease. Researchers examined National Vital Statistics System data for 2008-2010 for deaths from heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, and unintentional injury. This accounted for 63% of all US deaths (before the age of 80) in 2010. The researchers examined the potential effect of bringing mortality rates from the five leading causes of death in the U.S., down to the current lowest recorded levels. Study by Yoon P, et al “Potentially preventable deaths from the five leading causes of death – United States, 2008-2010” as published by Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014; 63: 369-374. Four of the authors are WHO staff members. As reported by MedPage Today on May 4, 2014.
Cholesterol grows cancer genetically. Study published in the online journal Cell Reports, 2012. University of Rochester Medical Centre scientists have confirmed the cholesterol and cancer link with new genetic evidence. As reported by onlinenews.com on 16 September 2012.
Vegetarians have lower body fat levels than meat-eaters. Study by Nico S. Rizzo, PhD, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, DrPH, Joan Sabate, MD, DrPH and Gary E. Fraser, PhD “Nutrient Proﬁles of Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Dietary Patterns” as published online in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics on August 28, 2013.
Vegetarians lose more weight and keep it off much longer than meat-eaters. The award winning study by Turner-McGrievy B, et al “How do plant-based achieve weight loss? Results of the New Dietary Interventions to Enhance the Treatment for Weight Loss (New DIETs) study” as presented on November 15 at a special session of The Obesity Society (TOS) Annual Meeting during Obesity Week, 2013; Abstract T-53-OR.
The average New Zealander has a very high bowel cancer and stomach cancer risk, due in part, to a diet low in vegetables. Study released jointly by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, was the result of five years of study by nine teams of scientists who reviewed 7,000 studies on diet, exercise, weight and cancer. The report draws on international studies checking the health and eating habits of hundreds of thousands of people. The studies include the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer, which has more than 500,000 participants.
Obese children have 50% higher risk of colon cancer. Study titled “Overweight in Adolescence is Related to Increased Risk of Future Urothelial Cancer” as published in the journal Obesity, 2012.
Obesity linked again to liver cancer and gallbladder cancer. Study by Sabrina Schlesinger at Section of Epidemiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel in Kiel, Germany and colleagues as published in the International Journal of Cancer, 2012.
Meat consumption contributes substantially to premature death: WCRF/AICR’s 2007-2011 Expert Report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective is the most comprehensive report ever published on the link between cancer and lifestyle. The CUP report on bowel cancer contains the judgements of the Continuous Update Project Expert Panel. It is chaired by Professor Alan Jackson of the University of Southampton and the other members are: Dr Elisa Bandera of the Cancer Institute of New Jersey; Dr David Hunter of Harvard University; Dr Stephen Hursting of the University of Texas; Dr Anne McTiernan of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Professor Hilary J Powers of the University of Sheffield; Professor Ricardo Uauy of Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos in Chile and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; and Dr Steven H Zeisel of the University of North Carolina. Professor Elio Riboli of Imperial College London is a panel observer and Dr John Milner of the National Cancer Institute is an advisor. Dr Arthur Schatzkin, of the National Cancer Institute, served on the CUP Expert Panel until his death in 2010.
Red Meat Increases Risk of Cancer, Heart Disease and Death: Arch Intern Med. Published online March 12, 2012. doi:10.1001/archinternmend.2011.2287; doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.174. As reported by Medical News Today, CBSnews.com, Robert Bazell, NBC News, Nicole Ostrow newyorkdailynews.com and AFP relaxnews.com on March 12, 2012.
Almost 40% of us have a significantly higher risk of colorectal cancer from the consumption of red meat and processed meat: Study by Figueiredo J, et al “Genome-wide analysis highlights gene interaction with processed meat and vegetable intake for colorectal cancer risk” from the University of Southern California and the ongoing collaboration among multiple institutions worldwide, the international NIH-funded ‘Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO)’, as presented at the annual American Society of Human Genetics meeting on October 25, 2013. This study utilized a case-control analysis of 9,287 patients with colorectal cancer and 9,117 controls through 10 observational studies. GECCO is investigating additional colorectal cancer-related variants and how genetic variants are modified by other environmental and lifestyle risk factors. As reported by MedPage Today and science20.com on October 24, 2013.
Corpet D. Red meat and colon cancer: should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safer? Meat Sci. 2011;89:310-316.
Low level or ‘moderate drinking’ of alcohol still drives breast cancer growth. There are 50,000 alcohol-attributable cases of breast cancer worldwide every year. Over 10% of breast cancers in Italy, France, the UK, Australia and New Zealand are due to alcohol. The study was a massive epidemiological review of 133 studies on alcohol intake and breast cancer by Helmut K. Seitz, PhD, from the Centre of Alcohol Research at the University of Heidelberg in Germany. The researchers looked at decades-long data covering 44,552 breast cancer cases in non-drinkers and 77,539 breast cancer cases in light drinkers. The authors said “A significant increase in the risk of breast cancer is already present at intakes of up to one alcoholic drink per day. Women should not exceed one drink of alcohol a day. For women at elevated risk for breast cancer, you should avoid alcohol”.
Advanced breast cancer nearly doubled in young women from 1976-2009. Study by Johnson RH, et al as “Incidence of breast cancer with distant involvement among women in the United States, 1976 to 2009” as published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA 2013; 309: 800-805. This data was from the National Cancer Institute and from the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), and published on Wednesday February 27, 2013.
Breast cancer among young women increasing more than genetics or population growth allows for. Study by Johnson RH, et al as “Incidence of breast cancer with distant involvement among women in the United States, 1976 to 2009” as published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA 2013; 309: 800-805.
Most breast cancer is not genetic. In a 2011 published Journal of Clinical Oncology study covering 3,047 families from the Breast Cancer Family Registry, women with BRCA genes in their families were at NO HIGHER BREAST CANCER RISK than average women.
BreastScreen 2013 survey in Victoria, Australia, found family history plays no role in breast cancer in three out of four women. As reported by the Sunday Herald Sun on February 16, 2013.
“Most breast cancers occur in people with no family history, so lifestyle and behavior factors must play a major role in the etiology of the disease” says The Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee, Tuesday February 12, 2013. Breast Cancer and the Environment: A Life Course Approach as produced by the Institute of Medicine.
Hypertension, heart disease and diabetes all rising in adolescents and children. The 14-year study was published in the Annals of Neurology, a journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society, 2011. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed that Ischemic stroke hospitalization rates among adolescents and young adults aged 15-44 went up 37% between 1995 and 2008. Researchers analyzed risk factors and comorbidities in patients admitted for stokes with discharge data made available from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The study concluded that; 30% of patients aged 15-34 and over 50% aged 35-44 had hypertension; 25% of patients 35-44 had diabetes; and 25% of females 15-34, 30% of females 35-44 and 30% of males 15-44 were smokers. As reported by National Underwriter online news service on 1 September 2011.
Gut bacteria dramatically affects your weight. Study published September 2012 in PLOS ONE, a journal of the Public Library of Science.
Deliberate weight loss directly linked to reduced cancer incidence and mortality. Study published online on June 4, 2012 in Obesity Reviews.
Sleep time and routine affects body weight. Study published online May 1 2012 in the journal Sleep, from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
‘Oblivobesity’ is widespread with 80% unaware. Report issued by the CDC on July 23, used a representative sample of children and adolescents in the U.S. to compare actual weight with perceptions of weight. The principal finding was that more than 80% of overweight boys and 70% of overweight girls misperceived their weight as “normal.”
Study by Dr. Meyerhardt and an associate professor of medicine at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, titled “Dietary Glycemic Load and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer: Findings From CALGB 89803”, as published in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute. As reported by The New York Times on November 9, 2012.
The study “Colorectal Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Treatment and Survival in Ireland: 1994 – 2010” was published April 8, 2013 by the National Cancer Registry. As reported by The Irish Times on April 8, 2013.
Trock B, Lanza E, and Greenwald P. “Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence.” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990): 650-661.
Howe GR, Benito E, Castelleto R, et al. “Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies.” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 84 (1992): 1887-1896.
Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R, et al. “Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study.” Lancet 361 (2003): 1496-1501.
Chan DS, Lau R, Aune D, et al. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies. PLoS One. 2011;6:e20456.
Bastide NM, Pierre FH, Corpet DE. Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved. Cancer Prev Res. 2011;4:177-184.
Butler LM, Sinha R, Millikan RC, et al. Heterocyclic amines, meat intake, and association with colon cancer in a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:434-445. Abstract
Heddle JA, Knize MG, Dawod D, Zhang, XB. A test of the mutagenicity of cooked meats in vivo. Mutagenesis 2001;16:103-107.
Aune D, Chan DS, Vieira AR, et al. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:611-627. Abstract
Xu X, Yu E, Gao X, et al. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:437-448. Abstract
Parr CL, Hjartaker A, Lund E, Veierod MB. Meat intake, cooking methods and risk of proximal coln, distal colon, and rectal cancer: The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Shin A, Schrubsole MJ, Rice JM. Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:320-329. Abstract
Joshi AD, Corral R, Catsburg C, et al. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case-control study. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:2108-2118. Abstract
Rohrmann S, linseisen J, Nothlings U, et al. Meat and fish consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:617-624. Abstract
Wu JW, Cross AJ, Baris D. et al. Dietary intake of meats, fruits, vegetables, and selective micronutrients and risk of bladder cancer in the New England region of the United States. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:1891-1898. Abstract
Huang W, Han Y, Xu J, Zhu W, Li Z. Red and processed meat intake and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:193-201. Abstract
Choi Y, Song S, Song Y, Lee JE. Consumption of red and processed meat and esophageal cancer risk: meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:1020-1029. Abstract
Salehi M, Moradi-Lakeh M, Salehi MH, Nojomi M, Kolahdooz F. Meat, fish, and esophageal cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2013;71:257-267. Abstract
Keszei AP, Schouten LJ, Driessen AL, Huysentruyt CJ, Keulemans YC, van den Brandt PA. Meat consumption and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus in a large Dutch cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Yang WS, Wong MY, Vogtmann E, et al. Meat consumption and risk of lung cancer: evidence from observational studies. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:3163-3170. Abstract
Fedirko V, Trichopolou A, Bamia C, et al. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospecive Investigaion into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Ann Oncol. 2013 May 1. [Epub ahead of print]
Daniel CR, Cross AJ, Graubard BL, et al. Large prospective investigation of meat intake, related mutagens, and risk of renal cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:155-162. Abstract
Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA. A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev. 2010;23:349-365. Abstract
Genkinger JM, Friberg E, Goldbohm RA, Wolk A. Long-term dietary heme iron and red meat intake in relation to endometrial cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:848-854. Abstract
Arem H, Gunter MJ, Cross AJ, Hollenbeck AR, Sinha R. A prospective investigation of fish, meat, and cooking-related carcinogens with endometrial cancer incidence. Br J Cancer. 2013 May 21. [Epub ahead of print]
The Cancer Project. Meat consumption and cancer risk. http://www.pcrm.org/pdfs/health/cancer/meat_and_cancer.pdf Accessed June 19, 2013.
Kappeler R, Eichholzer M, Rohrmann S. Meat consumption and diet quality and mortality in NHANES III. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:598-606. Abstract
Nagao M, Iso H, Yamagishi K, Date C, Tmkakoshi A. Meat consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print]
Takata Y, Shu XO, Gao YT, et al. Red meat and poultry intakes and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: results from cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai. PLoS One. 2013;8:e56963.
Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:562-571. Abstract
Truswell AS. Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56[Suppl 1]:19-24.
Kampman E, Slattery ML, Bigler J, et al. Meat consumption, genetic susceptibility, and colon cancer risk: a United States multicenter case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:15-24. Abstract
Alexander DD, Weed DL, Cushing CA Lowe KA. Meta-analysis of prospective studies of red meat consumption and colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20:293-307. Abstract
de Abreu Silva EO, Marcadenti A. Higher red meat intake may be a marker of risk, not a risk factor itself. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1538-1539. Abstract
Pan A, Bernstein AM, Schulze MB, et al. Red meat consumption and mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2013;172:555-563.
Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, et al. Meat consumption and mortality-results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC. 2013;11:63.
InterAct Consortium. Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study. Diabetologia. 2013;56:47-59. Abstract
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010;121:2271-2283. Abstract
Daniel CR, Cross AJ, Koebnick C, Sinha R Trends in meat consumption in the USA. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:575-8583. Abstract
American Institute for Cancer Research. Recommendations for Cancer Prevention. http://preventcancer.aicr.org/site/PageServer?pagename=recommendations_05_red_meat Accessed June 3, 2013.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Nutrition for Cancer Survivors. http://www.nccn.com/component/content/article/66/129-nutritionforcancersurvivorsaspx.html Accessed June 3, 2013.
Laura A. Stokowski, RN, MS, June 20, 2013, Medscape Oncology © 2013 WebMD, LLC, Cite this article: Red Meat and Cancer: What’s the Beef? Medscape. Jun 20, 2013: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/806573
Study by Cho E, Chen WY, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, et al “Red meat intake and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women”. Arch Intern Med2006;166:2253-9.
Study by De Stefani E, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M, Guidobono M, Deneo-Pellegrini H. “Meat intake, heterocyclic amines, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay”. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev1997;6:573-81.
Study by Maryam S. Farvid, Eunyoung Cho, Wendy Y. Chen, A. Heather Eliassen and Walter C. Willett reviewing the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort of 44,231 women aged 33–52 “Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk” as published in the International Journal of Cancer on October 3, 2014.
Study by associate professor Maryam S Farvid, associate professor Eunyoung Cho, assistant professor Wendy Y Chen, assistant professor A Heather Eliassen and professor Walter C Willett on 88,803 premenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study II “Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study” as published in the BMJ 10 June 2014; 348 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g3437.
Study by Steck SE, Gaudet MM, Eng SM, Britton JA, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, et al. “Cooked meat and risk of breast cancer lifetime versus recent dietary intake”. Epidemiology2007;18:373-82.
Study by Lauber SN, Ali S, Gooderham NJ. “The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine is a potent oestrogen: a mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity”. Carcinogenesis2004;25:2509-17.
Study by Farvid MS, Cho E, Chen WY, Eliassen AH, Willett WC. “Premenopausal dietary fat in relation to pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer”. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014;145:255-65.
Study by Kallianpur AR, Lee SA, Gao YT, Lu W, Zheng Y, Ruan ZX, et al. “Dietary animal-derived iron and fat intake and breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study”. Breast Cancer Res Treat2008;107:123-32.
Study by Andersson AM, Skakkebaek NE. “Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health”. Eur J Endocrinol 1999;140:477-85.
Study by Aune D, Chan DS, Greenwood DC, Vieira AR, Rosenblatt DA, Vieira R, et al “Dietary fiber and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies”. Ann Oncol2012;23:1394-402.
Study by Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA. “A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer”. Nutr Res Rev2010;23:349-65.
Study by Gago-Dominguez M, Yuan JM, Sun CL, Lee HP, Yu MC. “Opposing effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on mammary carcinogenesis: The Singapore Chinese Health Study”. Br J Cancer2003;89:1686-92.
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Further Cancer References:
- ‘Cancer Facts & Figures 2010’, an annual publication of the American Cancer Society in Atlanta, Georgia. Also see, cancer report by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), released on World Cancer Day, 4 February 2013.
- ‘Global Cancer Facts & Figures 2008’ from an American Cancer Society news release, 4 February 2011.
- ‘The Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2011: Warning about the Dangers of Tobacco’, WHO Report, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. Also see, ‘How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease — The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease’, US Department of Health and Human Service.
- R. Peto, A. Lopez, J. Boreham, M. Thun and C.J. Heath, Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries, 1950–2000, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994. Also see, ‘A review of human carcinogens. Part E: Personal habits and indoor combustions’, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Lyon, France, IARC, 2009.
- Cancer numbers taken from the most comprehensive global examination ever done on cancer, The World Cancer Report, IARC. Also see, ‘Nutrition, Physical Activity and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: A Briefing Document.’ Year and author? Also, ‘The International Update of Alcohol-Linked Cancer Deaths, 2013.’
Jason wishes to deeply thank, acknowledge and recognise the effort and contribution that the PIF Foundation has provided on a voluntary basis since 2014, as we educated, motivated and inspired change that helps transform the health, vitality and longevity of people all over the world.