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Study findings appear in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009. Eating just a little bit more fibre has a big impact in trimming waistlines. As reported by the Sydney Morning Herald, on October 30, 2009, Reuters.
Published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, February 2009, “Protective Effect of Total Carotenoid and Lycopene Intake on the Risk of Hip Fracture: A 17-Year Follow-Up From the Framingham Osteoporosis Study” Authors: S. Sahni, M.T. Hannan, J. Blumberg, L.A. Cupples, D.P. Kiel, K.L. Tucker.
Study funded by the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service and published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition January 2009, Volume 89, Number 1, Pages 416-424 “Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4-y change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study” Authors: S. Sahni, M.T. Hannan, J. Blumberg, L.A. Cupples, D.P. Kiel, K.L. Tucker.
Farhath Khanum M., Siddalinga Swamy, K. R. Sudarshana Krishna, K. Santhanam, and K. R. Viswanathan. 2000. Dietary fiber content of commonly fresh and cooked vegetables consumed in India. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 55: 207-218.
Sally F. Schakel, Janet Pettit, and john H. Himes. Dietary fiber values for common foods. In: Spiller, G. A. 2001. The CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition. 3 ed. CRC Press, London.
Study by Neal B “White rice and risk of type II diabetes” as published in the British Medical Journal 2012; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e2021.
Martirosyan DM, Das U, Martirosyan AM. ‘Functional food products and chronic diseases’ published in HerbalGram 2006;72:66-69.
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Archives of Intern Medicine, Volume 167, Number 19, Pages 2080-2085,”Breakfast Cereals and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians’ Health Study I”, Authors: L. Djousse, J.M. Gaziano.
Study by Di Sabatino A, Corrazza GR “Nonceliac gluten sensitivity: sense or sensibility?” as published in the February 21 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine 2012; 156: 309-311. As reported by The New Zealand Herald and The Sydney Morning Herald on 29 February 2012.
Study published in the journal Lancet (Volume 358, August 4, 2001) found when someone with gluten intolerance eats gluten it increases their risk of death by 600%.
Study by Aune D, et al “Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies” BMJ 2011; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d6617.
Tjønneland A, et al “Fibre and prevention of chronic diseases” BMJ 2011; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d6938.
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet, 2003. 361(9368): p. 1496-501.PubMed
Peters, U., et al., Dietary fibre and colorectal adenoma in a colorectal cancer early detection programme. Lancet, 2003. 361(9368): p. 1491-5.PubMed
Jacobs, D.J., et al., Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer, 1998. 30: p. 85-96.PubMed
Nomura, A.M., et al., Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Causes Control, 2007.PubMed
Wakai, K., et al., Dietary fiber and risk of colorectal cancer in the Japan collaborative cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2007. 16(4): p. 668-75.PubMed
Bingham, S. and E. Riboli, Diet and cancer–the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Nat Rev Cancer, 2004. 4(3): p. 206-15.PubMed
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Prospective Study of Dietary Fiber, Whole Grain Foods, and Small Intestinal Cancer (http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0…)01323-1/abstract).
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Kaul L., Nidiry J. (1993, march). “high fiber diet in the treatment of obesity and hypercholesterolemia.” Journal of the national Medical Association.
Pereira MA, Ludwig DS “Dietary fiber and body-weight regulation. Observations and mechanisms.” Pediatr Clin North Am 2001 Aug; 48 (4):969-80.
Liu S, et al. “Realtionship between changes in intake of dietary fibre and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle aged woman.” Am. J Clin. Nov 2003; 78(5):920-7.
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“Fiber facts: Get the truth concerning dietary fiber.” Rita Elkins. Woodlands Publishing. July 1999.
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Published in the Journal of Hepatology (Elsevier), 25 March 2008, 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.02.015. “Effect of probiotic treatment on deranged neutrophil function and cytokine responses in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis” Authors: V. Stadlbauer, R.P. Mookerjee, S. Hodges, G.A.K. Wright, N.A. Davies, R. Jalan.
Gregory J. Leyer, Shuguang Li, Mohamed E. Mubasher, Cheryl Reifer, and Arthur C. Ouwehand. Probiotic Effects on Cold and Influenza-Like Symptom Incidence and Duration in Children. Pediatrics 2009 124: e172-e179.
Nutrition (Elsevier), May 2008, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 421-426, “Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children” Authors: Martin Gotteland, M. Andrews, M. Toledo, L. Munoz, P. Caceres, A. Anziani, E. Wittig, H. Speisky, G. Salazar.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007, Issue 4 “Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity” Authors: D.A. Osborn, J.K. Sinn, The Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia.
Study presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions in Atlanta, March, 2011. The research was conducted on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 11,000 adults between the age of 20 and 59. The study confirmed a natural, high-fibre; plant-based wholefood diet significantly lowers heart disease risk.
A randomized controlled rechallenge trial, as published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology 2011; 106: 508-514, found gluten worsened symptoms in celiac-free patients. An uncontrolled, unblinded subgroup study found a gluten-free diet brought relief to patients who had gastrointestinal symptoms but did not have confirmed celiac disease, as published in Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 844-850.
Study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found a 72% increased risk of death in those non-celiacs with gut inflammation through eating gluten. The researchers looked at almost 30,000 patients from 1969 to 2008 and found a 35% increased risk in those with gluten sensitivity.
Double-blind study as published in the New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 333: 1-4, demonstrated that removing gluten helped to limit irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms. As reported by MedPage Today on February 20, 2012.
A study comparing the blood of 10,000 people from 50 years ago to 10,000 people today, found that the incidence of full-blown celiac disease has increased by 400%.
Pottenger, Francis, Jr, Pottenger’s Cats: A Study in Nutrition, Price-Pottenger Foundation, Inc., La Mesa, CA, 1995.
Pottenger, Francis, Jr, “The Effect of Heat-Processed Foods and Metabolized Vitamin D Milk on the Dentofacial Structures of Experimental Animals”, American Journal of Orthodontics and Oral Surgery, St Louis, MO, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 467-485, August 1946.
Howell, Edward, Enzyme Nutrition: The Food Enzyme Concept, Avery Publishing Group, Inc., Wayne, NJ, 1985
Howell, Edward, Food Enzymes for Health & Longevity, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI, 1994,2nd ed.
Loomis, Howard F., Jr, Enzymes: The Key to Health, Vol. 1 – The Fundamentals, Grote Publishing, Madison, WI, 1999.
Lopez, DA., Williams, R.M., Miehike, M., Enzymes: The Fountain of Life, The Neville Press, Inc., Charleston, SC, 1994.
Biosciences Microflora, 2005, Vol. 25, pp. 1-8, co-authored by Professor Glenn Gibson from the University of Reading (who along with Professor Marcel Roberfroid from the Catholic University of Louvain, in 1995 first coined the term ‘prebiotic’ in the Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 125, pp. 1401-1412) and Jan Van Loo from Belgium’s Orafti.
Journal of Pediatrics, September 2007, Volume 151, Pages 293-298, “Effect of Prebiotic Supplementation and Calcium Intake on Body Mass Index” Authors: S.A. Abrams, I.J. Griffin,
K.M. Hawthorne, K.J. Ellis. Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine.
Journal of Pediatrics, September 2007, Volume 151, Pages 293-298, “Effect of Prebiotic Supplementation and Calcium Intake on Body Mass Index” Authors: S.A. Abrams, I.J. Griffin, K.M. Hawthorne, K.J. Ellis. Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine.
British Journal of Nutrition, Published 11 Apr 2008, “Effects of lifelong intervention with an oligofructose-enriched inulin in rats on general health and lifespan” Authors: P. Rozan, A. Nejdi, S. Hidalgo, J.-F. Bisson, D. Desor, M. Messaoudi.
“Inulin May Help With Iron Uptake, Too” was published in the January 2008 issue of Agricultural Research magazine. Authors ARS plant physiologist Ross Welch, of the U.S. Plant, Soil, and Nutrition Laboratory, and Cornell University scientists Koji Yasuda, Karl R. Roneker, Xingen Lei, and Dennis D. Miller.
Olesen M., Gudmand-Hoyer, E. Efficasy, safety and tolerability of fructooligosaccarides (FOS) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. American Juornal of Clinical Nutrition 2000. 72(6):pp1570-1575.
Published in Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2007, Volume 66, Page 101A “Effects of a synbiotic on biomarkers of oxidative stress and faecal microbiota in healthy adults: results of a cross-over double-blind placebo-controlled trial” Authors: D.M.A. Saulnier, P. Hutt, M. Mikelsaar, D. Bosscher, G. Gibson, S. Kolida.
Published in the Nutrition Journal, September 2007, 6:17 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-17 “The role of a probiotics mixture in the treatment of childhood constipation: a pilot study” Authors: N. Bekkali, M.E.J. Bongers, M.M. Van den Berg, O. Liem, M.A. Benninga. Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam.
Niedzielin, K., Kordecki, H Birkenfeld, B., A controlled, double-blind randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2001, 13 (10):pp 1143-7. AND Study Microbes and Health Sackler Colloquium: Regulation of induced colonic inflammation by Lactobacillus acidophilus deficient in lipoteichoic acid. Mohamadzadeh M, Pfeiler EA, Brown JB, Zadeh M, Gramarossa M, Managlia E, Bere P, Sarraj B, Khan MW, Pakanati KC, Ansari MJ, O’Flaherty S, Barrett T, Klaenhammer TR.
British Journal of Sports Medicine, Feb 2008, “Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VR1-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes” Authors: A.J. Cox, D.B. Pyne, P.U. Saunders, P.A. Fricker.
Published in the Journal of Periodontology, Feb 2008. Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan. The study assessed the severity of periodontal disease in 942 men and women, aged 40 to 79 years, and their intake of milk, cheese, and lactic acid foods. They found that people with generalized (more advanced) periodontal disease had a lower intake of lactic acid foods than people with localized (less advanced) periodontal disease. Reuters Health February 2008.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 28 May 2008, “Oral delivery of Lactobacillus casei Shirota modifies allergen-induced immune responses in allergic rhinitis” Authors: Kamal Ivory, S.J. Chambers, C. Pin, E. Prieto, J.L. Arques, C. Nicoletti. The Institute of Food Research. The pilot study was sponsored by Yakult Honsha of Japan and the British Biotechnology and Science Research Council (BBSRC).
Study by researchers from Lund University in Sweden as published online in the journal PLoS ONE, early 2012. After monitoring around 20,000 residents of Malmo, Sweden’s third largest city, researchers confirmed that women who ate diets high in fiber had a 25% lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Study published on June 1, 2012 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Study co-first author and bone biologist Dr. Norman Pollock and Georgia Health Sciences University researchers found just 1% of teenagers met the recommended daily fibre intake of 28 grams for females and 38 grams for males. They looked at 559 teens (aged 14-18) and found those that didn’t eat enough fibre had bigger bellies and higher levels of inflammatory factors – leading towards heart disease and diabetes. The University researchers said “The simple message is adolescents need to eat more fruits, vegetables and whole grains. We need to push recommendations to increase fiber intake.” As reported by Georgia Health Sciences University, news release, June 1, 2012 and on June 5, 2012 by HealthDay News.
Study as published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition on May 23, 2012. N. Wareham of University of Oxford and colleagues looked over 11 years of data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study. This included 306,331 men and women from eight different European countries. These researchers found that each 10 grams per day of dietary fibre was linked to a 15% reduced risk of ischemic heart disease. Vegetable fibre was the most healthy and preventative (as previously proven) with 2.5 grams of vegetable fibre per day giving a 10% reduction. Every 5 grams per day of higher cereal fibre intake was associated with a 9% reduction and every 2.5 grams per day of fruit fiber was linked to a 6% reduction. The researchers said “A higher consumption of dietary fibre is associated with a lower risk of fatal IHD”. As reported by foodconsumer.com on Sunday July 14, 2012.
Study published on Thursday September 22, 2011 in the journal PLoS One. In her study Dr Felice Jacka, from Deakin University’s Barwon Psychiatric Research Unit, analysed data from more than 3,000 Victorian adolescents aged 11 to 18. The participants filled in questionnaires about their diets and psychological symptoms in 2005 and again in 2007. Those who ate healthy diets in 2005 were found to have fewer mental health problems than those with poor diets. Those who improved their diets by eating more healthy foods between 2005 and 2007 also had better mental health than those who had an unhealthy diet during that period. Other factors that could be associated with diet quality and mental health – such as the adolescent’s socio-economic status, age, gender, exercise levels and weight – were also taken into account but were not found to have any effect on the results. As reported by AAP on 22/09/2011.
Research published in the international journal BMC Medicine, July 26, 2011. They found that of 18 countries, New Zealand consistently ranked in the top 25% on nearly every measure of depression. Among the 10 high-income countries included, New Zealanders ranked second for people experiencing a major depressive episode in the 12 months before the survey and fourth for people having suffered a depressive episode in their lifetime. The results were based on data collected from 89,000 people around the world. As reported on 27/07/2011 by The Dominion Post.
Study published in the Journal of Adolescent Health, 2011. Researcher Alison E. Field, ScD, an associate in medicine at Children’s Hospital in Boston, found in the four-year study, that teen girls who are depressed are twice as likely to binge eat or overeat. The converse is also true: Teen girls who binge eat or overeat are two times more likely to become depressed than their counterparts who don’t show signs of problematic eating. As reported by WebMD Health News on 13 December 2011.
Study by Concordia University was published in the journal Psychophysiology, 2011. The researchers found that individuals who suffer from a mood disorder could be twice as likely to have a heart attack compared to individuals who are not depressed. A total of 886 participants, who were on average 60 years old, took part in the study conducted by Concordia in association with the Montreal Heart Institute, McGill University, the Hôpital Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, the Université du Québec à Montréal and the University of Calgary. This work was supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Quebec, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Canadian Hypertension Society and le Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec. As reported from by Concordia University on November 28, 2011.
Study by researchers from the University of Melbourne and published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, 2010. The researchers assessed diet and psychiatric evaluations gathered over 10 years from 1,046 women. They found that the modern diet – hamburgers, white bread, pizza, chips, flavoured milk drinks, beer, and sugar-laden foods – was associated with more than a 50% greater likelihood for depressive disorders. The connections between the diets and the risk of mood disorders remained strong even after researchers adjusted for potential confounding factors such as education, age, socioeconomic status, weight, physical activity, and alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Study of 3,486 middle-aged women by researchers from University College London as published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, 2010. The study concluded that people eating processed foods are significantly more likely to suffer from depression than those eating a healthy balanced diet. After adjusting for other depression risk factors such as age, education, gender, physical activity and smoking, the researchers found that those who consumed the most processed foods were 58% more likely to suffer from depression than those who ate the least. Similarly, those who ate the most whole foods were 26% less likely to suffer from depression than those who ate the least.
Study on 68 healthy young medical students by the Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2011, suggested that a daily diet of Omega-3 fatty acids reduced their symptoms of anxiety and reduced depressive symptoms in clinically depressed young subjects.
The National Indicators 2011 report was released by the Mental Health Commission on 17 August 2011. Drawing on 2008 figures from the Ministry of Health, Statistics New Zealand and the New Zealand General Social Survey, the report measured how mentally healthy New Zealanders were and how well the health sector was helping the recovery of those most affected by mental illness or addiction. It showed that young New Zealand women aged 15-24 have the highest rate of suicide in the OECD. Their male counterparts, aged 15-24, have the third worst suicide rate, ranked just below Iceland and Finland. Almost 21% of adults experience mental illness in a 12 month period. Chair commissioner Dr Lynne Lane said this was the first report of its kind where the information had been brought together in a single source, and would be updated with current figures later in the year and on a yearly basis after that. As reported on 17/08/2011 by the Manawatu Standard.
Study by the Centers for Disease Control reported October 2011. The study found 10% of adult Americans now take antidepressant medication. This is a nearly 400% increase from 1988-1994 to 2005-2008. As reported by The Evening Tribune on November 6 2011.
Study conducted by researchers from the University of Columbia and University of Pennsylvania and published in the Archives of General Psychiatry, 2010. The research showed that antidepressant use more than doubled in the United States between 1996 and 2005. “Not only are more U.S. residents being treated with antidepressants, but also those who are being treated are receiving more antidepressant prescriptions.” The number of people being treated with antidepressants increased from 13 million in 1996 to 27 million in 2005, rising from 6% to 10% of the population. Eric Caine of the University of Rochester noted that there has been no increase in mental health corresponding to increasing use of psychiatric drugs. “There are no data to say that the population is healthier,” he said. “Indeed, the suicide rate in the middle years of life has been climbing.” Antidepressants carry a risk of potentially serious side effects, including suicide. As reported by Stuff.co.nz 05/05/2010 and by Bowel Cancer Australia, http://www.bowelcanceraustralia.org/bca/, 2010, viewed 19 April 2011.
The major decade-long 388,000 people-strong NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was published Tuesday June 14, 2011 in the Archives of Internal Medicine. It showed again that people who consume a fiber-rich diet live longer. Researchers from the National Cancer Institute and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes and found that those with the highest fiber intake, specifically fiber from whole grains, had a significantly lower risk of death from any cause for both men and women. Previous studies have found that high-fiber diets can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer and colon cancer, but this latest NIH research is the first to show that eating fiber can actually help people live longer. As reported from NEW YORK /PRNewswire.
Study of more than 900 adults and 800 children from eight European countries by Professor Arne Astrup of the University of Copenhagen, 2010. The study found that after six months, those on the “no refined carbohydrate” diet were on average 2kg lighter than those on rival diets with a high glycaemic index. Participants had already lost an average of 11kg and were testing alternative approaches to maintaining their weight loss. As reported in the New Zealand Herald as “Finally, secret of lasting weight loss” on Friday Nov 26, 2010 – Independent.
Study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine April 12, 2010; 170(7):640-7 and reported by CNN April 12, 2010. Women who eat a lot of foods high in blood-sugar spiking carbohydrates, such as white bread and white rice, are twice as likely to develop heart diseases. Complex carbohydrates, such as fruit and pasta, were not associated with the increased risk of heart disease. The information comes from a study of about 48,000 people who were asked about their diets in detail. Previous studies have also shown a similar link between simple carbohydrates and heart disease risk.
Study published in the International Journal of Cancer October 20, 2006 and reported by Eurekalert October 20, 2006. The 12-year study examined 767 adults with this kidney cancer and 1534 that did not have the disease. The researchers asked participants to fill out food frequency questionnaires, which gauged the average weekly consumption for 78 different food items. There was a significant direct association for bread consumption raising the risk of renal cell carcinoma, the most common type of kidney cancer, and to a lesser extent pasta and rice. A decreased risk was associated with consumption of all vegetables. The association between grain products and cancer may be due to the high glycemic index of these foods and their association with insulin-like growth factors.
Study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, online August 3, 2011. Frank Hu, a professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston and his research group looked at the diets of nearly 1,900 Costa Rican men and women participating in a study of risk factors for heart disease between 1994 and 2004. None of the participants had diabetes at the start of the study. As Costa Rica has become richer and more urbanized, white rice consumption has risen while intake of beans has fallen. The rate of diabetes in the country has soared during this time. In previous research, Hu and his colleagues have found that eating brown rice may protect against type diabetes. In this newer study, people who ate at least two servings of beans for every serving of white rice were at lower risk for metabolic syndrome. Those who substituted a serving of beans for a serving of white rice the risk of metabolic syndrome was reduced by 35%. As reported by Reuters Health, New York on September 1, 2011.
Study by Hu EA, et al “White rice consumption and risk of type II diabetes: Meta-analysis and systematic review” as published in the British Medical Journal 2012; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e1454. The Harvard School of Public Health researchers reviewed a meta-analysis of four cohort studies conducted in the United States, Australia, China and Japan on 352,384 participants. They found that those who ate the largest amounts of white rice had a 27% greater risk of developing diabetes than those who ate the least. As reported by MedPage Today, TIME Magazine and HealthDay News on March 15, 2012.
Culture of Czech Republic – traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, rituals, History and ethnic relations http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/Czech-Republic.html#ixzz0qu6rxU8W. AND (24.5) Study reported online in the July 19 edition of the British Medical Journal. Crowe FL, et al “Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)” AND Humes DJ, West J “Diet and risk of diverticular disease”. Francesca L. Crowe, nutritional epidemiologist at the Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, and colleagues, wrote “Diverticular disease has been termed a disease of western civilisation because of its high prevalence in countries like the United Kingdom and United States compared with certain parts of Africa. We examined the associations of vegetarianism and the intake of dietary fibre with the risk of diverticular disease using information from hospital admission data and death certificates for 47,033 men and women in England and Scotland taking part in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort”. Of these, 15,459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet at baseline. Compared with meat eaters, vegetarians had a 31% lower risk for diverticular disease, after adjustment for confounding variables including smoking, alcohol use, and body mass index. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of dietary fiber intake, those in the highest quintile had a 41% lower risk for diverticular disease. “Consuming a vegetarian diet and a high intake of dietary fibre were both associated with a lower risk of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease”. As reported by Laurie Barclay, MD on July 20, 2011.
Study published in the American Journal of Medicine, 2011. The study found constipation may be a marker for cardiovascular risk factors and increased cardiovascular risk. The investigators hypothesized that because many of the factors that predispose a person to constipation are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease, constipation could be related to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Their evaluation of 73,047 participants of the Women’s Health Initiative revealed that those with moderate or severe constipation experienced more cardiovascular events (14.2 and 19.1 events per 1,000 person- years, respectively) than did those who did not suffer from constipation (9.6/1,000 person-years). After those recalculations, the women with severe constipation had a 23% higher risk of cardiovascular events. As reported on August 07 2011.
As reported in research from the Unit for Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry at Lund University in Sweden, September 2007.
International Study on Allergy and Asthma in Childhood. Authors Tabak C, Wijga AH, Thorax. The researchers, from the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Utrecht University, University Medical Center Groningen, used food frequency questionnaires completed by the parents of 598 Dutch children aged 8-13 years. They assessed the children’s consumption of a range of foods including fish, fruits, vegetables, dairy and wholegrain products.
Published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. In this meta-analysis of 7 studies including more than 150,000 persons, those whose diets provided the highest dietary fibre intake had a 29% lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to those with the lowest fibre intake.
Published in The American Journal Epidemiology Vol. 166, No. 10, November 2007, Title: “Whole grains and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco bay area, California”, Authors: J. Chan, F. Wang, E. Holly. Researchers examined the diet of 532 pancreatic cancer patients and 1,701 people not suffering from the disease, in the San Francisco area in the US.
Study published in the April 2009 issue of the journal Cancer Research by scientists at the Medical College of Georgia (MCG). The study showed that fibre (or roughage) works with beneficial bacteria in the colon to activate a receptor in the body that can kill cancer.
Study published by the British Medical Journal, October 20120. Researchers from the Danish Cancer Society’s Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, in Copenhagen, undertook the 10 year study of more than 55,000 men and women in middle age. None had bowel cancer at the beginning of the study but, 10 years later, 678 were diagnosed with it. The researchers calculated that if all but the healthiest of participants had followed just one extra rule, it was possible that 13% of the bowel cancer cases could have been prevented. If all participants had followed all five recommendations, then 23% of the bowel cancer cases could have been avoided. The rules were drawn from advice issued by the World Health Organisation, World Cancer Research Fund and other groups. As reported by AAP on 27/10/2010.
Antonis (1962), “The influence of diet on Fecal Lipids in South African White and Bantu Prizoners.” Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 11:142-155.
Published in the Journal Cancer Research. A study led by researchers at University College (UCL) in London, England showed that a compound found in most legumes, nuts and whole wheat inhibits an enzyme involved in cancerous tumor growth. The natural compound is called inositol pentakisphosphate and it inhibits the key cancer enzyme phosphoinositide 3-kinase. A team of scientists of the UCL Sackler Institute made the discovery.
Study done on coeliac patients between 1970 and 1999 in Christchurch, New Zealand and published in the New Zealand Medical Journal.
Study by Australian researchers published in The American Journal of Gastroenterology. The team led by Peter Gibson, professor of medicine at Monash University’s Eastern Health Clinical School, found people with irritable bowel syndrome – but not coeliac disease – benefit from a gluten-free diet. As reported by the Sydney Morning Herald, January 18, 2011.
Published in the August 2007 edition of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The major Europe-wide EU-sponsored SynCan project was supported by the European Commission and comprised nine research institutes and with Belgium’s Orafti as an industrial partner. The project consisted of a long-term rat study and a human dietary intervention to test the effects of the synbiotic supplement on colon cancer risk. Work done by the Karolinska Institute.
Study published in Nutrition, February 2009, “A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of synbiotic versus probiotic or prebiotic treatment to improve the quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis” Authors: S. Fujimori, K. Gudis, K. Mitsui, T. Seo, M. Yonezawa, S. Tanaka, A. Tatsuguchi, C. Sakamoto.
Study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2010, published in a 2010 issue of Environmental Science and Technology. Research by H. Storteboom, M. Arabi and J.G. Davis, all of Colorado State University, and B. Crimi of Delft University in The Netherlands.
Zimmer, Carl (13 July 2010). “How Microbes Defend and Define Us”. New York Times.
Study published in Nature, April, 2010, shows how horizontal gene transfer by diet can influence the genetic diversity and functionality of the human gut microbiome. This shows there is a dimension to human evolution that is occurring at the level of our gut microbiome. The paper was co-authored by biochemist and PhD student Jan-Hendrik Hehemann at the Station Biologique de Roscoff in France. The Scientist: Gut bacteria are what we eat – The Scientist – Magazine of the Life Sciences http://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/57272/#ixzz0kTLnwJgJ.
Study by head researcher Matthew Meyerson and colleagues at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute, 2011. They discovered that fusobacterium is present in shockingly high levels in inine colorectal tumors. This is the first time any correlation has been found between this cancer and microorganisms.
Study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Monday 28 June, 2010 by the team at the University of Wisconsin and Seattle-based Theraclone Sciences. They have shown that the human body makes rare antibodies effective against all flu viruses. The researchers said when they infected mice treated with the human antibodies with deadly doses of H1N1 and H5N1 flu, 60% to 80% recovered, compared to just 10% of untreated animals. As reported by Reuters 30/06/2010.
Study published in the American Journal of Pathology, 2010. “Vitamin D deficiency is a known factor in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer” said microbiologist Jun Sun, Ph.D., of the University of Rochester Medical Center, and assistant professor in the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division of the Department of Medicine “but there have been very few reports about how bacteria might play a role by targeting the vitamin D receptor. Our work suggests one possible mechanism, by working through the vitamin D receptor, a sensor and regulator for the majority of functions of vitamin D”. This work was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. University of Rochester Medical Center.
Published in the American Journal of Epidemiology 122: 13-26 and 27-40 (1985). Glady Block, et, al, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda.
Study published in Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, November 2010. This was a meta-analysis of 18 previous studies linking sitting or lying down with an increased risk of cancer.
A meta-analysis 90-year study that followed 1,528 Americans by researchers Howard Friedman and Leslie Martin in their book, The Longevity Project. As reported by USA TODAY, February 28, 2011.
Objectively measured physical capability levels and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010; 341:c4467 doi: 10.1136/bmj.c4467 (Published 9 September 2010). MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing and Division of Population Health, University College London, London WC1B 5JU.
List of High Fibre Foods refers to the cell wall components in plants: namely, pectin, beta-glucans, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, fructans, and gums. All vegetables and fruits contain these dietary fiber components. The fiber content and composition, however, varies depending on the fruit or vegetable maturity, type, growing environment, etc. Depending on the composition (proportion of pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose or lignin), the nutritional value and physiological effect of dietary fiber from vegetables or fruits can vary.
Trowel, H., “The development of the concept of dietary fiber in human nutrition.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 31 (10), pp. 3-11, 1978.
Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz G, et al. “Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women.” New England journal of Medicine 1999, 340:169-76.
Jansen MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Buzina, et al. “Dietary fiber and plant foods in relation to colorectal cancer mortality: the seven countries study.” Int J Cancer. April 1999 81(2):174-91.
Nutrition today. “News Breaks: Risk od colon cancer plummets with a high Fiber diet.” Vol. 38, No 4, July/August. 2003 (AICR News Release, April 10, 2003.)
- Schire (1971). “Heart Disease in South Africa with Special Reference to Ischemic Heart Disease.” South African medical Journal 45:634-644.
Liu. K. et al: “Dietary lipids, sugar, fiber, and mortality from coronary heart disease.” Arteriosclerosis 1982, 2:221.
Jensen, C., Haskell, W. et al “Long-term effect of water-soluble dietary fiber in the management of hypercholesterolemia in healthy mena and women.” American Journal of Cardiology 79(1):34-37. Jan 1997.
Kushi. LH, et al. “Diet and 29 year mortality from coronary heart disease.” New England Journal medical 1985, 312:811.
Arntzenius, AC, et al. “Diet, lipoproteins, and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.” New England J. Med 1985; 312:895.
New England Journal of Medicine 1997; 533:276-282.
Archives Internal medicine 2003; 163:1899-1904.
Anderson, J. W. et al. “High-fiber diets for obese diabetis men on insulin therapy: Short term and long term effects: Dietary fiber and obesity,” New York, 1985.
Jenkins, DJA. “Low glycemic carbohydrate foods for hyper-lipidemia.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1985: 42:604.
Treatment of chronic idiopathic large-bowel diarrhea in dogs with a highly digestible diet and soluble fiber: a retrospective review of 37 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 2000 Jan-Feb;14(1):27-32. PMID: 10668813 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Lawrence A, Altringer LA, Jardack GR, Hengehold DA, Morel JG.
Schwesinger WH, Kurtin WE, Page CP, Stewart RM, Johnson R.
Soluble dietary fiber protects against cholesterol gallstone formation. Am J Surg. 1999 Apr; 177(4):307-10. PMID: 10326849 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM.
Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan; 69 (1 ): 30-42. PMID: 9925120 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Obata K, Ikeda K, Yamasaki M, Yamori Y.
Dietary fiber, psyllium, attenuates salt-accelerated hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 1998 Dec; 16 (12 Pt 2): 1959-64. PMID: 9886883 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Vergara-Jimenez M, Conde K, Erickson SK, Fernandez ML.
Hypolipidemic mechanisms of pectin and psyllium in guinea pigs fed high fat-sucrose diets: alterations on hepatic cholesterol metabolism. J Lipid Res. 1998 Jul; 39(7): 1455-65. PMID: 9684749 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Rigaud D, Paycha F, Menulemans A, Merrouche M, Mignon M.
Gallstone formation in obese subjects undergoing a weight reduction diet. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Mar;22(3):282-4. No abstract available. PMID: 9539199 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Segawa K, Kataoka T, Fukuo Y.
Systematic review of the effectiveness of laxatives in the elderly. Health Technol Assess. 1997;1 (13): I-iv, 1-52. Review.
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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Published October 2007, 86 (4): 972-979 Authors: R. A. Samra, G. H. Anderson.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition September 26, doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602895 “Whole-grain consumption, dietary fibre intake and body mass index in the Netherlands cohort study” Authors: L.P.L. van de Vijver, L.M.C. van den Bosch, P.A. van den Brandt and R.A. Goldbohm.
American Journal of Epidemiology, “Dietary Fiber, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study” December 2007. Authors: H. Kan, J. Stevens, G. Heiss, K.M. Rose, S.J. London.
International Journal of Epidemiology. Authors Cade JE, Burley VJ, et al. Study conclusions based upon 35,972 participants in the UK Women’s Cohort Study.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 2007, Volume 86, Number 6, Pages 1730-1737, “Association between dietary fibre and endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis”. Authors: E.V. Bandera, L.H. Kushi, D.F. Moore, D.M. Gifkins and M.L. McCullough.
Published in the British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 99, Issue 6, Pages 1380-1387, “Effect of two doses of a mixture of soluble fibres on body weight and metabolic variables in overweight or obese patients: a randomised trial” The study was a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Authors: J. Salas-Salvado, X. Farres, X. Luque, S. Narejos, M. Borrell, J. Basora, A. Anguera, F. Torres, M. Bullo, R. Balanza, for the Fiber in Obesity-Study Group, Saint Joan University Hospital in Reus, Spain.
Published in the Journal, Circulation “Dietary Intake and the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study” January 2008. Authors: P.L. Lutsey, L.M. Steffen, J. Stevens. The University of Minnesota and the University of North Carolina.
Published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 2008, Volume 87, Pages 79-90 “The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome” Authors: H.I. Katcher, R.S. Legro, A.R. Kunselman, P.J. Gillies, L.M. Demers, D.M. Bagshaw, P.M. Kris-Etherton. Researchers from Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, and DuPont Central Research & Development.
Published October 2007in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86 (4): 972-979. University of Toronto, Authors: R. A. Samra, G. H. Anderson.
Liu L, Zubik L, Collins FW, Marko M, Meydani M. 2004. The antiatherogenic potential of oat phenolics compounds, Atherosclerosis 175:39-49.
Davidson A. 1999. The Oxford companion to Food. Oxford: Oxford University press. P.892.
Thompson T.2003. Oats and the gluten-free diet. Journal of the American Dietetic association 103:376-9.
Duyff R. 2002. American Dietetic Association complete food and nutrition guide. Hoboken: john Wiley 7 Sons, Inc.
Study by Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg, Germany and published on Wednesday October 26, 2011 in Nature. The researchers found that the gut environment – specifically the type of bacteria in the gut – influenced obesity, emotions and the behaviour of the host. “What has been observed in humans with regard to obesity is that there seems to be a difference in the number of kinds of bacteria in the gut. That number is much lower in obese people than in healthy people. We’re now starting to see direct impacts of the gut microbial community on host behavior” said Rob Knight of the University of Colorado, Boulder. As reported Wednesday 26 October, 2011 in DiscoveryNews.
Diaz Heijtz, et al., “Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior,” PNAS, doi/10.1073/pnas.1010529108, 2011. As published 31st January 2011 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Read more: Gut microbes influence behavior – The Scientist – Magazine of the Life Sciences http://www.the-scientist.com/news/display/57968/#ixzz1Ckitb9ca.
Nutrition Research (Elsevier), Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 187-193 “Prolonged administration of low-dose inulin stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria in humans” Authors: Y. Bouhnik, L. Raskine, K. Champion, C. Andrieux, S. Penven, H. Jacobs and G. Simoneau Source:
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 85, Pages 488-496, “Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients” Authors: J. Rafter, M. Bennett, G. Caderni, Y. Clune, R. Hughes, P.C. Karlsson, A. Klinder, M. O’Riordan, G.C. O’Sullivan, B. Pool-Zobel, G. Rechkemmer, M. Roller, I. Rowland, M. Salvadori, H. Thijs, J. Van Loo, B. Watzl, J.K. Collins.
Monika Roller, Angelo Pietro Femia, Giovanna Caderni, Gerhard Rechkemmer and Bernhard Watzl (2004) “Intestinal immunity of rats with colon cancer is modulated by oligofructose-enriched inulin combined with Lactobacillus rhamnosusand Bifidobacterium lactis”,
British Journal of Nutrition, 92, 931–938.
Klinder A, Förster A, Caderni G, Femia A, Pool-Zobel B (2004) Fecal water genotoxicity is predictive of tumor preventive activities by inulin-like oligofructoses (Raftilose Synergy1), probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis) and their synbiotic combination. Nutrition and Cancer Vol 49(2) pp; 144-155.
Monika Roller, Gerhard Rechkemmer and Bernhard Watzl (2004) Prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis modulates intestinal immune functions in rats. Journal of Nutrition Vol 134, pp. 153-156. Femia, A. P., C. Luceri, P. Dolara, A. Giannini, A. Biggeri, M. Salvadori, Y. Clune, K. J. Collins, M. Paglierani, and G. Caderni. 2002. “Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats” Carcinogenesis 23:1953-1960.
Giovanna Caderni,2 Angelo Pietro Femia, Augusto Giannini, Alessandro Favuzza, Cristina Luceri, Maddalena Salvadori, and Piero Dolara (2003) Identification of Mucin-depleted Foci in the Unsectioned Colon of Azoxymethanetreated Rats: Correlation with Carcinogenesis. Cancer research, Vol 63, pp. 2388-2392.
Bijkerk CJ, Muris JW, Knottnerus JA, Hoes AW, de Wit NJ. Utrecht University Medical Centre, Julius Centre for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct; 22 (5): 463-71.
Nutrition Research (Elsevier), Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 187-193 “Prolonged administration of low-dose inulin stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria in humans” Authors: Y. Bouhnik, L. Raskine, K. Champion, C. Andrieux, S. Penven, H. Jacobs and G. Simoneau.
Nutrition Research (Elsevier), May 2007, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 258-264, Authors: O.F. O’Connell, L. Ryan and N.M. O’Brien.
Langlands SJ, Hopkins MJ, Coleman N, Cummings JH. Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel. Gut. 2004 Nov;53(11):1610-6.
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Brown L, Rosner, B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber; a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan;69 (1) 30-42.
Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Feb;71 (2) 472-479.
Roberfroid MB. Introducing inulin-type fructans. Br J Nutr. 2005 Apr;93 Suppl 1:S13-25.
Pereira DI, Gibson GR. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;37(4):259-81.
Van Loo J, Clune Y, Bennett M, Collins JK. The SYNCAN project : goals, set-up, first results and settings of the human intervention study. Brit. J. Nutr. 2005; April 93(S1), 91-98.
Van Loo J (*), Clune Y, Bennett M, Collins JK (2005) The SYNCAN project : goals, set-up, first results and settings of the human diteary intervention study. Brit. J. Nutr. 93(S1), 91-98.
Reddy, B. S., R. Hamid, and C. V. Rao. 1997. Effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition. Carcinogenesis 18:1371-1374.
Rowland, I. R., C. J. Rumney, J. T. Coutts, and L. C. Lievense. 1998. Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 19:281-285.
Taper, H. S., N. M. Delzenne, and M. B. Roberfroid. 1997. Growth inhibition of transplantable mouse tumors by non-digestible carbohydrates. Int. J. Cancer 71:1109-1112.
Taper, H. S., C. Lemort, and M. B. Roberfroid. 1998. Inhibition effect of dietary inulin and oligofructose on the growth of transplantable mouse tumor. Anticancer Res. 18:4123-4126.
Taper, H. S. and M. Roberfroid. 1999. Influence of inulin and oligofructose on breast cancer and tumor growth. J. Nutr. 129:1488S-1491S.
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Verghese M, Walker LT, Shackelford LA, Chawan CB, and Van Loo J. Inhibitory effects of non digestible carbohydrates of different chain lengths on AOM induced aberrant crypt foci in Fisher 344 rats. aberrant crypt foci in Fisher 344 rats. Second annual AACR international conference ‘Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, Phoenix, AR, October 26-30 2003., poster number B186. 2003.
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Van Loo J and Jonkers N. 2001. Evaluation in human volunteers of the potential anticarcinogenic activities of novel nutritional concepts : prebiotics probiotics and synbiotics ( the SYNCAN project). Nutr. , Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 11:87-93.
Bolognani, F., C. J. Rumney, B. L. Pool-Zobel, and I. R. Rowland. 2001. Effect of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and inulin on the formation of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Eur. J. Nutr. 40:293-300.
Kazuhiro Hirayama, J. R. 2000. The role of probiotic bacteria in cancer prevention. Microbes and infection 2:681-686.
Rafter, J. 2003. Probiotics and colon cancer. Best. Pract. Res Clin Gastroenterol 17:849-859.
Reddy, B. S. 1998. Prevention of colon cancer by pre- and probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies. Br. J. Nutr. 80:S219-S223.
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Gibson, G. R. and M. B. Roberfroid. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J. Nutr. 125:1401-1412.
Gibson GR, Probert H, Van Loo J, Rastall B, Roberfroid MR (2004) “Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiotia : updating the concept of prebiotics” Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol 17 pp. 259-275
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Jason wishes to deeply thank, acknowledge and recognise the effort and contribution that the PIF Foundation has provided on a voluntary basis since 2014, as we educated, motivated and inspired change that helps transform the health, vitality and longevity of people all over the world.